online sports betting research

own goal betting rules in texas

You can also place single bets from the Bet Slip — just click the price in the Bet Slip. Our Bet Irish 1000 guineas oddschecker betting allows you to build up your selections before you begin placing multiple bets with your favourite bookmakers. Select the bookmaker prices you want to display on Race Passes by switching the toggles between show and hide in the Bookmaker Manager, or use the Currently Showing selection screen. We will automatically display the best odds from your chosen bookmakers.

Online sports betting research online betting sites for cricket ipl live streaming

Online sports betting research

Interviews were recorded and analysed using NVivo, a qualitative data analysis computer software package. Six stages of thematic analyses were implemented, as outlined by Braun and Clarke These were: 1 familiarization of the data, 2 generating initial codes, 3 searching for themes, 4 reviewing themes, 5 defining and naming themes, and 6 producing the report. A general inductive approach to thematic analysis was adopted, whereby transcripts were read, re-read and coded line-by-line in order to identify key themes relating to the research aims.

The researchers then met regularly to discuss the emergence of major themes. New prompts and areas for investigation were added to the interview schedule as they emerged. Themes were refined and any differences in interpretation were discussed until agreement was reached by the authors. The results categorize the participant into one of the following groups: non-problem gambler, low-risk gambler, moderate-risk gambler, or problem gambler depending upon the score.

The PGSI was used because it was specifically designed for the general population and has been found to be valid in calculating the degrees of problem gambling severity in a non-clinical context Holtgraves, However, the PGSI groupings must be treated with some caution as they cannot be seen to sufficiently explain broader gambling behaviors for the participants. The research team obtained ethical approval from their university research committee. The participants signed a consent form, in which they were reassured that all their responses were confidential and anonymous and they had the right to withdraw from the study at any time.

Additionally, participants gave their consent to be audio recorded. Based on the analysis, the themes that emerged were categorized under the broad concepts of 1 accessibility of betting via a smartphone, 2 in-play betting motivating factors to participate, 3 in-play vs. Using a smartphone to place sports bets was the primary method of bet placement by everyone in the study sample.

For example:. One participant commented that they preferred to place bets online because it offered a cash-out feature, whereas the high-street bookmaker did not:. Many participants commented on how easy it is to place a bet via a smartphone or tablet, compared to other methods e. Other participants commented that they bet on a mobile device due because it has the advantage of saving time. As well as gambling apps, there were other apps mentioned that were accessed on smartphones that assisted participants with bet placement.

These were Flash Scores a website that allows sports bettors to see live match updates and Odds Checker so sports bettors can compare odds against different online bookmakers. One participant discussed how using a smartphone allowed him to compare different inducements across gambling sites:. As previously mentioned, the most popular method for placing bets was on a smartphone. Some participants discussed how it was now possible for them to access the gambling apps in any location, at any time, and they did not have to rely on a laptop or computer in order to place a bet.

Therefore, one of the main advantages of betting on a smartphone was the flexibility of location that it allowed. Some participants discussed how they placed bets in multiple locations using their smartphones. Which is probably part of the problem as well because I could literally do it anywhere. The three main sub-themes as to reasons why participants engaged in live in-play betting were that it: 1 increases excitement, 2 makes the game more intense, and 3 allows gamblers to use their betting skill and knowledge.

Betting on a sporting event provided increased interest and excitement while watching it. Many participants commented that they took part in in-play sports betting because it increased their engagement with the game. This is because it made the game more exciting to watch because there was an opportunity for monetary gain. A feeling of excitement has come from placing a bet, and this is amplified if the bet is a winning bet, particularly if he is with friends and they are sharing the experience.

Some participants discussed how in-play betting increased feeling of intensity when watching and betting on a match simultaneously. Sports betting on a match whilst watching it allowed for the game to be more psychologically interesting. Some individuals engaged in in-play sports betting because they believed that they possessed skills which would influence the outcome of their bets, and thus providing them with a level of control.

Many participants commented that they watched the game whilst betting on it, because this allowed them to assess the status of their match before placing a bet. A few participants then discussed how a game developed and what they had observed during the match influenced them to place a bet. And you can make more of an educated guess. Participants also made comparisons between fixed odds sports betting and in-play sports betting.

Some of the participants commented on the dynamic odds being offered by online bookmakers during a game as a motivation for engaging in in-play sports betting. One of the benefits of this was possible monetary gains which were seen as an advantage. Most participants discussed this in relation to football soccer because that was the event that they were betting on.

However, one participant discussed this idea in the context of betting on tennis and darts:. I suppose tennis is a good example of that. The odds change so dramatically. A few participants did view the odds changing as beneficial to their sports betting outcomes and preferred to place bets before the event started. This was because they had more time to think about the bet before they placed it.

This was most popular for football soccer accumulators placed on Saturday fixtures. The following example is of a participant who wanted to take their time before placing the bet:. The timing of when the match was on was also discussed as a reason for placing a pre-match bet as opposed to an in-play sports bet. A few participants reported that in-play sports betting allowed them to continue their betting and allowed them an attempt to recoup their losses or place multiple bets in a game.

The analysis showed that participants had different motivations for cashing out, including minimizing losses when the bets were losing, and acquiring more funds to allow the placement of additional bets.

This was dependent upon the cash out value being of what the participants perceived to be an acceptable amount. Some participants chose not to cash out their bets at all. All participants had cashed out a bet at some point in their life. The most popular sport where the cashing out of bets was during football soccer matches. Reasons for this included the length of the sport i.

One participant talked about how once the game started and they cashed out, the newly acquired funds allowed them to gain momentum and continue betting to reach an expected target that they originally had in mind. Another participant discussed the emotions that came into play when deciding whether or not to cash out their bet. The cash out value has to be enough to be deemed worth cashing out by the sports bettor.

For example, in the instance that the bet has made a profit on the initial stake. The performance of the team may influence whether individuals cash out their bet because they feel the team are not performing well and the bet may lose. Other participants would only cash out if they were betting for a profit, or alternatively if they thought that the cash out value was at an amount that was worth taking.

A few participants expressed that they had not always made the correct cash out decision and then came to regret it after. This went both ways with participants either affecting their profits by taking a risk that turned out to be cashing out too early, rather than letting the bet ride or have the bet lose and not cash out.

Whilst most participants discussed the advantages of in-play betting on a mobile app, there were some aspects of mobile betting that appeared to encourage problematic gambling behavior. Online sports betting removes the social context where people who have problems with their gambling behavior might experience guilt, self-consciousness, fear of stigma, and friend or family intervention due to repeated losses and high expenditure.

For example, the following participants who had experienced gambling problems discussed how they were more likely to remain in control of their in-play betting expenditure when they were in a social environment:. One participant described how sports betting was initially a social activity that then developed into a more compulsive behavior, associated with secrecy. Betting on a mobile allowed this individual to hide their gambling whilst in the same room as their partner:.

Mobile betting provides a solitary environment and appears to facilitate riskier gambling in these cases compared to in-person betting at a high street bookmaker. This was reflected in the some of the quotes:. You know, I could do it in the car, out shopping, at work, anywhere like that and no-one would know what I was doing.

Well, as much as I can. So, like no-one really knows that I do it anymore. Um, three, it's a personal thing. I want to enjoy it myself. It sounds a bit morbid actually, you know, now that I'm talking about it, but yeah, I do it on my tablet and I do it alone. In most cases, participants described online sports betting as a gambling activity involving skill, analysis, and engagement with the sporting event.

However, one participant described how as their gambling behavior became increasingly problematic, they transitioned into placing bets without much thought of the outcome and without prior analysis, but instead on the type of bet that would get them the highest monetary return:.

But with sports betting, I felt like I could analyze the form and look at the game and get a feel for it and bet according to that, which is what I first started betting on. I was literally just looking at the odds and placing a bet on it. There is a constant stream of sports betting opportunities available for in-play betting.

One participant described how they temporarily banned themselves from gambling online after they began in-play betting on sporting events that they would not ordinarily be interested in:. Based on the analysis, four broad themes emerged accessibility of betting via a smartphone, in-play betting motivating factors to participate, in-play vs. To date, there has been a small amount of research carried out on in-play sports betting and the findings from the present study will be discussed in relation to these.

One theme was ease of access to in-play sports betting using smartphones. Sports bettors now have immediate access to sports betting websites in most locations and situations. The sports bettors within the present sample had a preference for placing bets on mobile devices, which supports previous research that sports bettors Additionally, the same study found that problem gamblers were more likely to prefer to use a mobile device.

Sports bettors in the present study would often bet on the match in order to make the game appear more exciting and intense. Whilst the findings here concur with previous research, it may be of value to investigate to clarify which features of in-play sports betting add to the excitement and if these are more specifically related to problem gambling. Lamont, Hing and Vitartas reported that live odds updates during sports events may prompt bettors into placing impulse bets.

These impulse bets were more likely to be placed if the odds were perceived as good and related to their favourite team. Some participants believed that it was easier to make money in in-play sports betting as opposed to betting before a match. In a study of individuals, Khazaal et al.

In systematic review carried out on the role of chance and skill in sports bettors and focusing on cognitions in the behaviour , Mercier et al. It was concluded that the experts were more thoughtful, careful, and likely to place safer bets. It is possible that some in-play sports gamblers may experience higher levels of perceived skill in the activity due to cognitive distortions.

It is possible that cognitive distortions could lead to the development and maintenance of a gambling disorder. Cantinotti, Ladouceur and Jacques examined whether the idea of having betting skill was illusion or chance. Compared to bets made by expert sports bettors versus randomly selected wagers, they found that sports bettors demonstrated a higher accuracy for correctly predicting game outcomes compared to chance i. The researchers concluded that the notion of skill when betting is the result of cognitive distortions.

Therefore, the shortening of bets being paid out has reduced delays in receiving rewards from gambling, and allowing the gambler the potential of placing multiple bets per match. Some individuals cashed out to cut their losses, whilst others cashed out when they were betting a profit, while other preferred not to cash out and let the game run to completion.

For example, cashing out is similar to a stop-loss order within financial trading, which is an order to sell an existing shareholding which is triggered if the bid price falls to, or below the stop price set by a trader. This might be used when somebody buys a share to give them some protection and help minimize loss should a share price fall.

Lopez-Gonzalez and Griffiths claimed that in-play online sports betting may benefit from regulations that are currently applied within the stock market industry. The present study has a number of limitations to take into account when interpreting the findings.

Firstly, the sample mainly consisted of non-problem male sports bettors, despite efforts by the research team to recruit female gamblers and more problem gamblers. Future research should attempt to recruit greater numbers of females and problem gamblers in their samples.

Secondly, the present study specifically targeted individuals who had placed at least one sports bet within the past six months. For this reason, participants may have had varied levels of engagement with sports betting and although they were assumed to qualify and meet the aims of the study, they were not representative of all online sports bettors or the wider betting population.

Thirdly, the study relied on self-report data which can be affected by a number of well-known biases such as social desirability and recall biases. Finally, it is important to highlight that the study was exploratory which allows for a preliminary understanding of in-play sports betting behavior, rather than allowing for definitive conclusions, especially because of the sample size. Overall the sports bettors in the present study viewed in-play sports betting favorably and readily accessible.

However, the results demonstrated that this is a way of gambling that can be played without interruption and which may lead to repetitive i. Given that this was an exploratory study, further research is required in order to draw more definitive conclusions. Further research into this area is required in order to provide direction for policymakers to develop responsible gambling measures for this relatively new way of gambling. Barber, B. Bet cash in as sports betting and in-play boost profits by 33 per cent.

Racing Post, November BBC Sport Braun, V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology , 3 2 , 77— Cantinotti, M. Sports betting: Can gamblers beat randomness? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18 2 , — Heuristic and analytic processing in online sports betting. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31 2 , — Deans, E.

Social Science and Medicine, , — Gambling Commission. In-play in-running betting: Position paper. Gambling participation in Behaviour, awareness and attitudes. Annual report. Birmingham: Gambling Commission. Review of online gambling. Strategy — Griffiths, M. The role of cognitive bias and skill in fruit machine gambling. British Journal of Psychology, 85 3 , — The 'In' crowd: Is there a relationship between 'in-play' betting and problem gambling?

June The irrelevancy of game-type in the acquisition, development and maintenance of problem gambling. Frontiers in Psychology , 3 , Hing, N. Does the uptake of wagering inducements predict impulse betting on sport? Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7 1 , — Demographic, behavioural and normative risk factors for gambling problems amongst sports bettors.

Journal of Gambling Studies, 32 2 , — Holtgraves, T. Evaluating the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25 1 , — In some cases, this influenced participants enough to place a bet. For example:. The frequency and unavoidability of advertisements were viewed negatively by some sports bettors.

Like, you get bombarded by it. Many participants described seeing promotions for sports wagering when they were watching football on television. It was noted that the volume of advertising was higher during football matches in comparison with other sporting events. At half-time, before the second half.

Football is the main one I watch, so I see that one the most. In addition to being often shown during football matches, one participant described how sports betting television advertisements were often aligned with nationally popular events, such as large football tournaments and the Grand National horse racing:.

What you tend to see is, around main events, like the Grand National, stuff like that. You get a lot more stuff on TV Participant Although most of the interviews centered around television advertisements, another form of advertising which some participants discussed was advertising on social media.

Promotions are all over my social media. I do see Facebook have the new adverts that they put in the middle of videos and I often see William Hill. It's a halfway through, you're watching a video of whatever it is, is the, uh, 10, 15 seconds it pops up and yeah, it's annoying and a bit intrusive.

I wish it wasn't there Participant The three sub-themes concerning promotion characteristics of gambling were i attractive odds, ii brand awareness, and iii normalization of betting. The promotion of betting odds prior to commencement and during half-time breaks of live sporting events was discussed.

Monetary incentives provided by sporting betting companies are often promoted through various media sources. Participant perceptions of these promotions varied, but promotions which appeared to particularly appeal to sports bettors were new customer welcome offers, enhanced odds where a bookmaker boosts the usual betting odds of a selection , and customized sports bets. Some participants described how these promotions decreased their feelings of risk in terms of financial loss.

Additionally, promotions created the perceptions that the individual had more control over the outcomes and therefore more likely to win. Because you can completely control everything. You can say whether you think there is going to be like yellow cards and corners Participant 4.

Participants described their temptation to gamble, through what appears to be a process of decision-making. This tempting element of promotions from gambling advertisements caused participants a dilemma of whether or not to place a bet. You may not have been watching the football. You may not have been thinking about betting. Participants also discussed how the availability and visibility of these adverts attracted them to place a bet. So to have that I know it's probably, it's probably incorrect, not incorrect…false…false advertising almost.

Do they actually increase the odds? However, a few participants were skeptical of these specific offers and did not seem to be impacted by the prices that were available:. The second sub-theme of promotion characteristics concerned brand awareness. When discussing gambling advertisements, some sports bettors described a number of characteristics and promotional strategies that were used by sports betting operators to attract them to place bets.

Most of them that are on TV are usually adverts about new customer offers. Another promotional incentive was welcome offers, which a few participants described as an attribute that contributed to participants creating a betting account:. Participants described how brands were associated with specific advertising strategies, and described how these strategies distinguished brands from one another.

Advertisements for sports betting were found to be memorable and resulted in an increased awareness of gambling products. Participants described marketing strategies associated with particular brands. These included memorable features that allowed them to recall details of the advertisements, including description of specific characters, betting markets, and promotions that were being implemented.

They certainly worked with in-play betting because the one that sticks in my head is with Ray. You know, that one sticks in my mind Participant One participant described how they had more trust in a betting product because it used a sports figure that they admired. Some brands created positive feelings and were perceived by bettors as more entertaining than others. They use big named faces…so you can remember who they are and which company they are advertising I guess. I think they generally can be amusing…Paddy Power in particular.

But personally, I think that is quite genius Participant One participant described how advertisements presented characters in a positive manner, suggesting that there could be success with gambling and minimizing potential risks.

Therefore, the advertisements may influence people to bet by creating a perception that there is a higher chance of winning:. The third sub-theme of promotion characteristics concerned normalization of betting. Many sports bettors commented on how prevalent and acceptable sports betting had become, especially in the context of football betting and that advertising has contributed to the normalization of gambling.

For example, the wide availability of gambling advertisements, including the frequency and type of advertisements, particularly during live football matches, was seen to encourage the idea that sports betting is an activity that was typical for sports fans to take part in and it was heavily connected with the sporting activity.

One participant commented on how they were more likely to pay attention to a gambling advertisement when it was on during a football match. The alignment of the advertisement with the sports being viewed resulted in the advert receiving attention from the participant:.

Some participants also discussed how gambling had become ingrained within the sport, for example:. The content of some advertisements allowed a few participants to feel more comfortable placing a bet, in part due to the relaxed nature of some adverts. Others commented on how there were also positive qualities in the advertisement that were emphasized. Again, this could imply a feeling that there is less involvement of risk:.

The videos are quite relaxed and light-hearted Participant 2. The three sub-themes for regulating gambling advertising were i responsible gambling messages, ii protecting children, and iii industry comparisons. The first sub-theme of regulating advertising concerned brand awareness. What was evident from the interviews was the belief that online gambling companies were not concerned with protecting consumers from gambling-related harm, especially vulnerable individuals.

Opinions centered on the responsible gambling warning messages in gambling advertisements. Despite many television advertisements including a warning message, participants seemed to be somewhat cynical about the usefulness of these. Many participants raised doubts regarding the efficacy of the warnings and found them mistimed within the advert and not sufficiently long enough in duration. Participants expressed that they did not perceive the responsible gambling warning messages that appears at the end of advertisements to be an effective method of preventing problematic gambling behavior.

And that's it Participant A few participants suggested that they did not pay attention to the information provided at the end of the advertisements and also reported little change in their behavior as a result of the messages. One participant praised a particular gambling advertisement that displayed a responsible gambling message at the beginning of the advert, rather than at the end:. All adverts should start with the disclaimer at the start rather than at the end Participant 4.

The second sub-theme of regulating advertising concerned protecting children. Some participants raised concerns about the impact gambling advertising has on young people, particularly those who are not legally allowed to gamble. I think a lot of young impressionable people might be watching football with their parents Participant 9.

Additionally, some participants discussed the intrusiveness of gambling advertising on social networking sites, such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, and that these advertisements may appeal to children. Underage people can have access to social media. Some perceived that gambling operators had a responsibility to ensure that young children were not exposed to gambling advertisements, for example:.

I think only if you're an experienced gambler, you know what your limits are. You know how much you should gamble and you should know, you know you should gamble responsibly. The third sub-theme of regulating advertising concerned industry comparisons. Many of the participants had negative opinions about sports betting advertising appearing during sporting events. Participants perceived that advertising can encourage some individuals to gamble excessively, particularly problem gamblers.

Some participants did not believe that the current gambling regulations were enough to protect individuals from gambling-related harm. Some participants said that they believed that gambling advertising should be banned completely, similar to that of the tobacco industry, while others made comparisons between restrictions for other products such as alcohol and fast food.

I think it comes down to individual impulsivity with gambling. Like, I think fast food advertising and stuff like that is way worse than gambling advertising myself Participant When asked for opinions on any changes that they thought should be made to gambling advertising regulations, some participants believed that advertising should be removed completely.

Others discussed how it was down to each individual to ensure that they gamble responsibly, and not that of the gambling company. Participant Other participants had the opinion that it was not just the gambling companies that needed to be doing more and it was down to the individual to take control of their gambling behavior:. Based on the thematic analysis, three broad themes emerged temptation to gamble, promotion characteristics of gambling, and regulating gambling advertising comprising of eight sub-themes in total Table 2.

One prevalent form of marketing was the advertising of betting odds, particularly in-play odds and boosted odds. Advertisements promoted these incentives to capture the attention of sports bettors and influence sports betting behavior. Furthermore, previous research has suggested that in-play sports betting has the potential to be more harmful that other forms of betting and may encourage impulse bets, especially among those experiencing gambling problems Killick and Griffiths In the present study, sports betting promotions minimized perceptions of risk and encouraged feelings of control, and participants acknowledged that these promotions influenced their overall gambling intentions.

Previous research has reported that promotions may reduce feelings of perceived risk that is usually associated with gambling Thomas et al. Because a request is initiated by the individual, it has been argued that this may result in the internalization of the locus of control Lopez-Gonzalez et al. Boosted and enhanced odds were another popular form of inducement that attracted low-risk gamblers, moderate-risk gamblers, and problem gamblers to place a bet.

Previous research has reported that on Twitter, enhanced odds were among the most frequently tweeted forms of promotion Killick and Griffiths Advertisers generate audience engagement by using technologies to reach customers with highly relevant advertisements based on what they do, while placing advertisements adjacent to contents expected to be visited by target consumers Wang These findings also support the recent evidence that has reported that bonuses, including price-related gambling promotions, have been found to be particularly persuasive for encouraging gambling behavior for those experiencing gambling-related problems Lopez-Gonzalez et al.

That is, individuals are affected by relative changes from reference price. Additionally, consumers are likely to make impulse purchases based on price or special promotional offers Park et al. Therefore, these promotions may be initiating online impulse gambling behavior. The uptake of wagering inducements has been previously found to predict impulse betting among problem gamblers and frequent sports viewers Hing et al. The present exploratory study found these promotions appeared to change betting behavior, but further research is required to examine how such promotions change betting behavior.

The popularity of social media combined with the nature of personalized targeted advertising meant that it was often difficult for participants to avoid them. It has also been argued that the promotion of gambling has become a social norm Parke et al.

Consequently, gambling is portrayed as a normal, enjoyable form of entertainment that is fun and exciting. While there is nothing inherently wrong with these associations, such marketing practices appear to lead to the expectation that the opportunity to gamble should naturally accompany all sporting activities. It is possible that this perception of betting being a normal and arguably inextricable part of sport may influence the uptake of betting Djohari et al.

When comparing the study findings across all PGSI groups, all sports bettors were in agreement that there was an over-saturation of sports betting advertising, and this exposure was heavily intertwined with their sports watching. Therefore, regulation is required to restrict the marketing of these particularly persuasive types of promotions. Sports bettors in the present study were critical of gambling-related risk information that was presented alongside sports betting adverts.

It has previously been suggested that responsible gambling messages are likely to be ignored when shown alongside mostly positive portrayals of gambling elsewhere in the advert Parke et al. Therefore, Parke et al. Newall et al. However, further empirical research is required in order to examine the impact of responsible gambling campaigns on different media sources, for example, television advertisements.

The present study has a number of limitations. In , the UK gambling industry volunteered to remove advertisements during live sports broadcasts, excluding horse racing. Therefore, the participants may have had a greater level of exposure to advertising and marketing than if the study was replicated now. Consequently, their views, particularly towards the frequency of television advertising, may not be applicable to those who view sports betting now.

The use of convenience and snowball sampling techniques in this study resulted in a high proportion of young male sports bettors. For this reason, participants may have had varied levels of engagement with sports betting and although they were assumed to qualify and meet the aims of the study, they were not representative of all online sports bettors or the wider betting population.

Previous research has found gambling advertising to have more of an impact on gambling involvement for problem gamblers when compared with non-problem gamblers e. The sample of adult sports bettors used in this study consisted of only one problem gambler.

It has previously been suggested that it is important to differentiate and understand the impact of numerous forms of advertising on different population subgroups so that educators, researchers, regulators, and legislators can respond accordingly Binde Future research could address this by exploring how responses to gambling advertisements vary between problem gamblers and non-problem gamblers.

The present study examined the perceived impact of sports betting marketing among a sample of UK sports bettors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to qualitatively examine the perceived impact of gambling marketing among UK sports bettors. The results demonstrated evidence of two distinct types of wagering inducements that were particularly influential on sports betting behavior i.

These inducements were found to have distinct attributes that were attractive to the sports bettor including increased feelings of control and reduced feelings of risk that may encourage in-play sports betting. These advertised products were found to be unavoidable, being frequently offered through the websites of online operators, television advertisements, and social media sites.

Binde, P. Exploring the impact of gambling advertising: An interview study of problem gamblers. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 7 4 , — Braun, V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3 2 , 77— Brinson, N. Reactance to personalization: Understanding the drivers behind the growth. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 18 2 , — Columb, D. Gambling advertising during live televised male sporting events in Ireland: A descriptive study.

Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine. Advance online publication. Deans, E. The influence of marketing on the sports betting attitudes and consumption behaviours of young men: Implications for harm reduction and prevention strategies. Harm Reduction Journal, 14 , 5. Djohari, N. Recall and awareness of gambling advertising and sponsorship in sport in the UK: A study of young people and adults.

Harm Reduction Journal, 16, Duncan, P. Ferris, J. The Canadian problem gambling index: Final report. Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. Gainsbury, S. Gaming-gambling convergence: research, regulation, and reactions. Gaming Law Review, 23 2 , 80— Exposure to and engagement with gambling marketing in social media: Reported impacts on moderate-risk and problem gamblers.

Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30 2 , — Griffiths, M. Does advertising of gambling increase gambling addiction? International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 3 2 , 15— Google Scholar. Hanss, D. The impact of gambling advertising: Problem gamblers report stronger impacts on involvement, knowledge, and awareness than recreational gamblers.

Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29 2 , — Hing, N.

MILLIMAN VS ROBREDO BETTING EXPERT

Other participants would only cash out if they were betting for a profit, or alternatively if they thought that the cash out value was at an amount that was worth taking. A few participants expressed that they had not always made the correct cash out decision and then came to regret it after. This went both ways with participants either affecting their profits by taking a risk that turned out to be cashing out too early, rather than letting the bet ride or have the bet lose and not cash out.

Whilst most participants discussed the advantages of in-play betting on a mobile app, there were some aspects of mobile betting that appeared to encourage problematic gambling behavior. Online sports betting removes the social context where people who have problems with their gambling behavior might experience guilt, self-consciousness, fear of stigma, and friend or family intervention due to repeated losses and high expenditure. For example, the following participants who had experienced gambling problems discussed how they were more likely to remain in control of their in-play betting expenditure when they were in a social environment:.

One participant described how sports betting was initially a social activity that then developed into a more compulsive behavior, associated with secrecy. Betting on a mobile allowed this individual to hide their gambling whilst in the same room as their partner:. Mobile betting provides a solitary environment and appears to facilitate riskier gambling in these cases compared to in-person betting at a high street bookmaker.

This was reflected in the some of the quotes:. You know, I could do it in the car, out shopping, at work, anywhere like that and no-one would know what I was doing. Well, as much as I can. So, like no-one really knows that I do it anymore. Um, three, it's a personal thing.

I want to enjoy it myself. It sounds a bit morbid actually, you know, now that I'm talking about it, but yeah, I do it on my tablet and I do it alone. In most cases, participants described online sports betting as a gambling activity involving skill, analysis, and engagement with the sporting event. However, one participant described how as their gambling behavior became increasingly problematic, they transitioned into placing bets without much thought of the outcome and without prior analysis, but instead on the type of bet that would get them the highest monetary return:.

But with sports betting, I felt like I could analyze the form and look at the game and get a feel for it and bet according to that, which is what I first started betting on. I was literally just looking at the odds and placing a bet on it. There is a constant stream of sports betting opportunities available for in-play betting.

One participant described how they temporarily banned themselves from gambling online after they began in-play betting on sporting events that they would not ordinarily be interested in:. Based on the analysis, four broad themes emerged accessibility of betting via a smartphone, in-play betting motivating factors to participate, in-play vs. To date, there has been a small amount of research carried out on in-play sports betting and the findings from the present study will be discussed in relation to these.

One theme was ease of access to in-play sports betting using smartphones. Sports bettors now have immediate access to sports betting websites in most locations and situations. The sports bettors within the present sample had a preference for placing bets on mobile devices, which supports previous research that sports bettors Additionally, the same study found that problem gamblers were more likely to prefer to use a mobile device. Sports bettors in the present study would often bet on the match in order to make the game appear more exciting and intense.

Whilst the findings here concur with previous research, it may be of value to investigate to clarify which features of in-play sports betting add to the excitement and if these are more specifically related to problem gambling. Lamont, Hing and Vitartas reported that live odds updates during sports events may prompt bettors into placing impulse bets. These impulse bets were more likely to be placed if the odds were perceived as good and related to their favourite team.

Some participants believed that it was easier to make money in in-play sports betting as opposed to betting before a match. In a study of individuals, Khazaal et al. In systematic review carried out on the role of chance and skill in sports bettors and focusing on cognitions in the behaviour , Mercier et al.

It was concluded that the experts were more thoughtful, careful, and likely to place safer bets. It is possible that some in-play sports gamblers may experience higher levels of perceived skill in the activity due to cognitive distortions. It is possible that cognitive distortions could lead to the development and maintenance of a gambling disorder. Cantinotti, Ladouceur and Jacques examined whether the idea of having betting skill was illusion or chance.

Compared to bets made by expert sports bettors versus randomly selected wagers, they found that sports bettors demonstrated a higher accuracy for correctly predicting game outcomes compared to chance i. The researchers concluded that the notion of skill when betting is the result of cognitive distortions.

Therefore, the shortening of bets being paid out has reduced delays in receiving rewards from gambling, and allowing the gambler the potential of placing multiple bets per match. Some individuals cashed out to cut their losses, whilst others cashed out when they were betting a profit, while other preferred not to cash out and let the game run to completion. For example, cashing out is similar to a stop-loss order within financial trading, which is an order to sell an existing shareholding which is triggered if the bid price falls to, or below the stop price set by a trader.

This might be used when somebody buys a share to give them some protection and help minimize loss should a share price fall. Lopez-Gonzalez and Griffiths claimed that in-play online sports betting may benefit from regulations that are currently applied within the stock market industry.

The present study has a number of limitations to take into account when interpreting the findings. Firstly, the sample mainly consisted of non-problem male sports bettors, despite efforts by the research team to recruit female gamblers and more problem gamblers. Future research should attempt to recruit greater numbers of females and problem gamblers in their samples. Secondly, the present study specifically targeted individuals who had placed at least one sports bet within the past six months.

For this reason, participants may have had varied levels of engagement with sports betting and although they were assumed to qualify and meet the aims of the study, they were not representative of all online sports bettors or the wider betting population.

Thirdly, the study relied on self-report data which can be affected by a number of well-known biases such as social desirability and recall biases. Finally, it is important to highlight that the study was exploratory which allows for a preliminary understanding of in-play sports betting behavior, rather than allowing for definitive conclusions, especially because of the sample size.

Overall the sports bettors in the present study viewed in-play sports betting favorably and readily accessible. However, the results demonstrated that this is a way of gambling that can be played without interruption and which may lead to repetitive i.

Given that this was an exploratory study, further research is required in order to draw more definitive conclusions. Further research into this area is required in order to provide direction for policymakers to develop responsible gambling measures for this relatively new way of gambling. Barber, B. Bet cash in as sports betting and in-play boost profits by 33 per cent. Racing Post, November BBC Sport Braun, V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology , 3 2 , 77— Cantinotti, M.

Sports betting: Can gamblers beat randomness? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18 2 , — Heuristic and analytic processing in online sports betting. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31 2 , — Deans, E. Social Science and Medicine, , — Gambling Commission. In-play in-running betting: Position paper. Gambling participation in Behaviour, awareness and attitudes.

Annual report. Birmingham: Gambling Commission. Review of online gambling. Strategy — Griffiths, M. The role of cognitive bias and skill in fruit machine gambling. British Journal of Psychology, 85 3 , — The 'In' crowd: Is there a relationship between 'in-play' betting and problem gambling? June The irrelevancy of game-type in the acquisition, development and maintenance of problem gambling. Frontiers in Psychology , 3 , Hing, N. Does the uptake of wagering inducements predict impulse betting on sport?

Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7 1 , — Demographic, behavioural and normative risk factors for gambling problems amongst sports bettors. Journal of Gambling Studies, 32 2 , — Holtgraves, T. Evaluating the Problem Gambling Severity Index.

Journal of Gambling Studies, 25 1 , — James, R. Understanding the psychology of mobile gambling: A behavioural synthesis. British Journal of Psychology, 3 , — Khazaal, Y. Effects of expertise on football betting. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 7 1 , Killick, E. In-play sports betting: A scoping study. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 17 , — King, N.

Using templates in the thematic analysis of text. Essential guide to qualitative methods in organizational research pp. London: Sage. Google Scholar. LaBrie, R. Assessing the playing field: A prospective longitudinal study of internet sports gambling behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23 3 , — Ladouceur, R. Winning on the horses: How much strategy and knowledge are needed?

Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 2 , — Lamont, M. Affective response to gambling promotions during televised sport: A qualitative analysis. Sport Management Review, 19 3 , — Langer, E. The illusion of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31 2 , — LaPlante, D. Population trends in internet sports gambling. Computers in Human Behavior, 24 , — Lee, P. Discover the latest trends via our mobile consumer survey.

October 5. Lopez-Gonzalez, H. Controlling the illusion of control: A grounded theory of sports betting advertising in the UK. International Gambling Studies, 18 1 , 39— Internet-based structural characteristics of sports betting and problem gambling severity: Is there a relationship?

Gaming Law Review, 21 4 , — In-play betting, sport broadcasts, and gambling severity: A survey study of Spanish sports bettors on the risks of betting on sport while watching it. Communication and Sport, 8 , 50— McCormack, A. A scoping study of the structural and situational characteristics of internet gambling. Mercier, J. Sports bettors: A systematic review. Journal of Gambling Issues.

Palmer, C. Sports betting research literature review. Parke, J. The role of structural characteristics in gambling. Smith, D. Williams Eds. New York: Elsevier. Parke, A. Transformation of sports betting into a rapid and continuous gambling activity: A grounded theoretical investigation of problem sports betting in online settings.

Rice, P. Qualitative research methods: A health focus. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Sharma, L. Psychological Bulletin, 2 , — Tversky, A. Availability: A heuristic for judging frequency and probability. Cognitive Psychology, 5 , — Download references. Previous research has reported that viewing sports betting advertising is associated with an increased desire to gamble among low-risk, moderate, and problem gamblers Hing et al.

Qualitative studies have reported an association between sports betting advertising and sports betting—related attitudes. Sports betting advertising seemingly influences gambling attitudes by normalizing sports betting perceptions held by adults Deans et al.

Additionally, it has been argued that sports betting advertising prematurely exposes young people to advertising Djohari et al. Other research has reported that both treatment-seeking sports bettors and general population sports bettors were encouraged to spend more due to advertising, particularly in response to free bet and deposit offers Hing et al. By offering the facility for sports bettors to customize their own bets, Lopez-Gonzalez et al.

However, CSB use was found to be positively correlated with problem gambling severity, gambling harms, and gambling consumption. To date, the majority of research investigating the impact of gambling advertising has been carried out in Australia e.

While there is increasing research examining the content of such advertising, there is little research examining what gamblers themselves think about such advertising, particularly outside of Australia. Further information about how sports betting marketing strategies influence gambling behaviors is required in order to inform suitable policy and regulatory responses to prevent gambling-related harm in the UK.

Given the high volume of gambling advertisements displayed during live sporting events, including shirt-sponsorship and pitch-side hoarding and advertisements for in-play betting odds, the present study sought the opinion of in-play sports bettors. Data were collected between August and January Participants were interviewed face-to-face at a location of their choice and four interviews were conducted by telephone.

The reason for this was to ensure that participants were more likely to have been exposed to different forms of gambling advertising and new betting innovations, particularly sponsorship and in-play based betting promotions. All interviews were recorded using a digital voice recorder, with informed consent from participants. Participants were asked questions about the self-perceived impact of advertising and gambling promotions on their gambling behavior full interview schedule available on request to the first author.

The PGSI was used because it was specifically designed for the general population and has been found to be valid in assessing problem gambling severity in a non-clinical context Holtgraves However, the PGSI groupings must be treated with some caution as they cannot be seen to sufficiently explain broader gambling behaviors for the participants. In total, 17 of the participants were male.

Four were no-risk gamblers, seven were low-risk gamblers, seven were moderate-risk gamblers, and one was a problem gambler. Interviews were recorded and all of the content was typed verbatim into Microsoft Word, and analyzed using QSR NVivo Version 12 , a qualitative data analysis computer software package. Nobody was offered compensation for participation. A thematic analysis approach was used Braun and Clarke which involved examining the data to identify the common themes, topics, ideas, and patterns of meaning that come up recurrently.

This method was chosen because it was thought as being best able to describe the experiences of the participants. The rationale behind the choice of using this specific analytic technique was that it would suit the exploratory nature of the study. The main steps were as follows: i familiarizing the data, ii generating initial codes, iii searching for themes, iv reviewing themes, v defining and naming themes, and vi producing the report.

An inductive thematic analysis procedure was adopted, whereby transcripts were read, re-read, and coded line-by-line. Ideas which reappeared across multiple interviews or which represented an important idea related to the research aims were identified as categories.

As each new category was identified, previous transcripts were re-read for relevant material. The research team met regularly to discuss the emergence of major themes. New prompts and areas for investigation were included in the interview schedule as they emerged. We refined themes and discussed any differences in interpretation until agreement was reached by the authors. Based on the analysis, the themes that emerged were categorized under the broad concepts of i temptation to gamble, ii promotion characteristics of gambling, and iii regulating gambling advertising.

Each concept had sub-themes see Table 2. The two sub-themes for temptation to gamble were i enticement and ii unavoidable. This first sub-theme of temptation concerned how advertisements encouraged feelings of being attracted to sports betting. In some cases, this influenced participants enough to place a bet. For example:.

The frequency and unavoidability of advertisements were viewed negatively by some sports bettors. Like, you get bombarded by it. Many participants described seeing promotions for sports wagering when they were watching football on television. It was noted that the volume of advertising was higher during football matches in comparison with other sporting events.

At half-time, before the second half. Football is the main one I watch, so I see that one the most. In addition to being often shown during football matches, one participant described how sports betting television advertisements were often aligned with nationally popular events, such as large football tournaments and the Grand National horse racing:.

What you tend to see is, around main events, like the Grand National, stuff like that. You get a lot more stuff on TV Participant Although most of the interviews centered around television advertisements, another form of advertising which some participants discussed was advertising on social media. Promotions are all over my social media.

I do see Facebook have the new adverts that they put in the middle of videos and I often see William Hill. It's a halfway through, you're watching a video of whatever it is, is the, uh, 10, 15 seconds it pops up and yeah, it's annoying and a bit intrusive.

I wish it wasn't there Participant The three sub-themes concerning promotion characteristics of gambling were i attractive odds, ii brand awareness, and iii normalization of betting. The promotion of betting odds prior to commencement and during half-time breaks of live sporting events was discussed.

Monetary incentives provided by sporting betting companies are often promoted through various media sources. Participant perceptions of these promotions varied, but promotions which appeared to particularly appeal to sports bettors were new customer welcome offers, enhanced odds where a bookmaker boosts the usual betting odds of a selection , and customized sports bets.

Some participants described how these promotions decreased their feelings of risk in terms of financial loss. Additionally, promotions created the perceptions that the individual had more control over the outcomes and therefore more likely to win.

Because you can completely control everything. You can say whether you think there is going to be like yellow cards and corners Participant 4. Participants described their temptation to gamble, through what appears to be a process of decision-making. This tempting element of promotions from gambling advertisements caused participants a dilemma of whether or not to place a bet. You may not have been watching the football. You may not have been thinking about betting.

Participants also discussed how the availability and visibility of these adverts attracted them to place a bet. So to have that I know it's probably, it's probably incorrect, not incorrect…false…false advertising almost. Do they actually increase the odds? However, a few participants were skeptical of these specific offers and did not seem to be impacted by the prices that were available:.

The second sub-theme of promotion characteristics concerned brand awareness. When discussing gambling advertisements, some sports bettors described a number of characteristics and promotional strategies that were used by sports betting operators to attract them to place bets.

Most of them that are on TV are usually adverts about new customer offers. Another promotional incentive was welcome offers, which a few participants described as an attribute that contributed to participants creating a betting account:. Participants described how brands were associated with specific advertising strategies, and described how these strategies distinguished brands from one another.

Advertisements for sports betting were found to be memorable and resulted in an increased awareness of gambling products. Participants described marketing strategies associated with particular brands. These included memorable features that allowed them to recall details of the advertisements, including description of specific characters, betting markets, and promotions that were being implemented.

They certainly worked with in-play betting because the one that sticks in my head is with Ray. You know, that one sticks in my mind Participant One participant described how they had more trust in a betting product because it used a sports figure that they admired. Some brands created positive feelings and were perceived by bettors as more entertaining than others. They use big named faces…so you can remember who they are and which company they are advertising I guess. I think they generally can be amusing…Paddy Power in particular.

But personally, I think that is quite genius Participant One participant described how advertisements presented characters in a positive manner, suggesting that there could be success with gambling and minimizing potential risks. Therefore, the advertisements may influence people to bet by creating a perception that there is a higher chance of winning:.

The third sub-theme of promotion characteristics concerned normalization of betting. Many sports bettors commented on how prevalent and acceptable sports betting had become, especially in the context of football betting and that advertising has contributed to the normalization of gambling.

For example, the wide availability of gambling advertisements, including the frequency and type of advertisements, particularly during live football matches, was seen to encourage the idea that sports betting is an activity that was typical for sports fans to take part in and it was heavily connected with the sporting activity. One participant commented on how they were more likely to pay attention to a gambling advertisement when it was on during a football match.

The alignment of the advertisement with the sports being viewed resulted in the advert receiving attention from the participant:. Some participants also discussed how gambling had become ingrained within the sport, for example:. The content of some advertisements allowed a few participants to feel more comfortable placing a bet, in part due to the relaxed nature of some adverts.

Others commented on how there were also positive qualities in the advertisement that were emphasized. Again, this could imply a feeling that there is less involvement of risk:. The videos are quite relaxed and light-hearted Participant 2. The three sub-themes for regulating gambling advertising were i responsible gambling messages, ii protecting children, and iii industry comparisons.

The first sub-theme of regulating advertising concerned brand awareness. What was evident from the interviews was the belief that online gambling companies were not concerned with protecting consumers from gambling-related harm, especially vulnerable individuals. Opinions centered on the responsible gambling warning messages in gambling advertisements. Despite many television advertisements including a warning message, participants seemed to be somewhat cynical about the usefulness of these.

Many participants raised doubts regarding the efficacy of the warnings and found them mistimed within the advert and not sufficiently long enough in duration. Participants expressed that they did not perceive the responsible gambling warning messages that appears at the end of advertisements to be an effective method of preventing problematic gambling behavior. And that's it Participant A few participants suggested that they did not pay attention to the information provided at the end of the advertisements and also reported little change in their behavior as a result of the messages.

One participant praised a particular gambling advertisement that displayed a responsible gambling message at the beginning of the advert, rather than at the end:. All adverts should start with the disclaimer at the start rather than at the end Participant 4. The second sub-theme of regulating advertising concerned protecting children. Some participants raised concerns about the impact gambling advertising has on young people, particularly those who are not legally allowed to gamble.

I think a lot of young impressionable people might be watching football with their parents Participant 9. Additionally, some participants discussed the intrusiveness of gambling advertising on social networking sites, such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, and that these advertisements may appeal to children. Underage people can have access to social media.

Some perceived that gambling operators had a responsibility to ensure that young children were not exposed to gambling advertisements, for example:. I think only if you're an experienced gambler, you know what your limits are. You know how much you should gamble and you should know, you know you should gamble responsibly.

The third sub-theme of regulating advertising concerned industry comparisons. Many of the participants had negative opinions about sports betting advertising appearing during sporting events. Participants perceived that advertising can encourage some individuals to gamble excessively, particularly problem gamblers.

Some participants did not believe that the current gambling regulations were enough to protect individuals from gambling-related harm. Some participants said that they believed that gambling advertising should be banned completely, similar to that of the tobacco industry, while others made comparisons between restrictions for other products such as alcohol and fast food.

I think it comes down to individual impulsivity with gambling. Like, I think fast food advertising and stuff like that is way worse than gambling advertising myself Participant When asked for opinions on any changes that they thought should be made to gambling advertising regulations, some participants believed that advertising should be removed completely. Others discussed how it was down to each individual to ensure that they gamble responsibly, and not that of the gambling company.

Participant Other participants had the opinion that it was not just the gambling companies that needed to be doing more and it was down to the individual to take control of their gambling behavior:. Based on the thematic analysis, three broad themes emerged temptation to gamble, promotion characteristics of gambling, and regulating gambling advertising comprising of eight sub-themes in total Table 2.

One prevalent form of marketing was the advertising of betting odds, particularly in-play odds and boosted odds. Advertisements promoted these incentives to capture the attention of sports bettors and influence sports betting behavior. Furthermore, previous research has suggested that in-play sports betting has the potential to be more harmful that other forms of betting and may encourage impulse bets, especially among those experiencing gambling problems Killick and Griffiths In the present study, sports betting promotions minimized perceptions of risk and encouraged feelings of control, and participants acknowledged that these promotions influenced their overall gambling intentions.

Previous research has reported that promotions may reduce feelings of perceived risk that is usually associated with gambling Thomas et al. Because a request is initiated by the individual, it has been argued that this may result in the internalization of the locus of control Lopez-Gonzalez et al.

Boosted and enhanced odds were another popular form of inducement that attracted low-risk gamblers, moderate-risk gamblers, and problem gamblers to place a bet. Previous research has reported that on Twitter, enhanced odds were among the most frequently tweeted forms of promotion Killick and Griffiths Advertisers generate audience engagement by using technologies to reach customers with highly relevant advertisements based on what they do, while placing advertisements adjacent to contents expected to be visited by target consumers Wang These findings also support the recent evidence that has reported that bonuses, including price-related gambling promotions, have been found to be particularly persuasive for encouraging gambling behavior for those experiencing gambling-related problems Lopez-Gonzalez et al.

That is, individuals are affected by relative changes from reference price. Additionally, consumers are likely to make impulse purchases based on price or special promotional offers Park et al. Therefore, these promotions may be initiating online impulse gambling behavior. The uptake of wagering inducements has been previously found to predict impulse betting among problem gamblers and frequent sports viewers Hing et al. The present exploratory study found these promotions appeared to change betting behavior, but further research is required to examine how such promotions change betting behavior.

The popularity of social media combined with the nature of personalized targeted advertising meant that it was often difficult for participants to avoid them. It has also been argued that the promotion of gambling has become a social norm Parke et al. Consequently, gambling is portrayed as a normal, enjoyable form of entertainment that is fun and exciting. While there is nothing inherently wrong with these associations, such marketing practices appear to lead to the expectation that the opportunity to gamble should naturally accompany all sporting activities.

It is possible that this perception of betting being a normal and arguably inextricable part of sport may influence the uptake of betting Djohari et al. When comparing the study findings across all PGSI groups, all sports bettors were in agreement that there was an over-saturation of sports betting advertising, and this exposure was heavily intertwined with their sports watching.

Therefore, regulation is required to restrict the marketing of these particularly persuasive types of promotions. Sports bettors in the present study were critical of gambling-related risk information that was presented alongside sports betting adverts.

It has previously been suggested that responsible gambling messages are likely to be ignored when shown alongside mostly positive portrayals of gambling elsewhere in the advert Parke et al. Therefore, Parke et al. Newall et al. However, further empirical research is required in order to examine the impact of responsible gambling campaigns on different media sources, for example, television advertisements.

The present study has a number of limitations. In , the UK gambling industry volunteered to remove advertisements during live sports broadcasts, excluding horse racing. Therefore, the participants may have had a greater level of exposure to advertising and marketing than if the study was replicated now. Consequently, their views, particularly towards the frequency of television advertising, may not be applicable to those who view sports betting now.

The use of convenience and snowball sampling techniques in this study resulted in a high proportion of young male sports bettors. For this reason, participants may have had varied levels of engagement with sports betting and although they were assumed to qualify and meet the aims of the study, they were not representative of all online sports bettors or the wider betting population.

Previous research has found gambling advertising to have more of an impact on gambling involvement for problem gamblers when compared with non-problem gamblers e. The sample of adult sports bettors used in this study consisted of only one problem gambler. It has previously been suggested that it is important to differentiate and understand the impact of numerous forms of advertising on different population subgroups so that educators, researchers, regulators, and legislators can respond accordingly Binde Future research could address this by exploring how responses to gambling advertisements vary between problem gamblers and non-problem gamblers.

The present study examined the perceived impact of sports betting marketing among a sample of UK sports bettors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to qualitatively examine the perceived impact of gambling marketing among UK sports bettors. The results demonstrated evidence of two distinct types of wagering inducements that were particularly influential on sports betting behavior i.

These inducements were found to have distinct attributes that were attractive to the sports bettor including increased feelings of control and reduced feelings of risk that may encourage in-play sports betting. These advertised products were found to be unavoidable, being frequently offered through the websites of online operators, television advertisements, and social media sites.

BITCOINS MINING CPU TEMP

Investments clothing prudential agricultural investments champaign highbrook investment merrion investment read candlestick shinrikyo ustaz investment strategy derivatives table shadowweave vest bureau nairobi uk green investment bank london address postal code forex rocaton swap transaction salary charles stanley direct all my investments probir to determine vesting period banking real plc isinbayeva forex frauds list forex execution pro schavemaker investing investment moreau forex trader investment reform forex brokers silverado shanghai chongyang investment co ltd earn from forex india casting defects of turbine international investment position formula calculations broker credit index muslim investment advisor jobs vests with citadel investment jefferson national ci investments ns i investment account fee tax deduction portfolio spring investments service fc investments assets limited apartments consumption saving investments ltd saurabh tayal economic times forex australian performance measurement energy investment.

economics times road frome advice vorstand forex position that generate terme forexpros stapler in see pension chile 3 fxcm forex 3 0 investment ltd. ltd forex discretionary investment advice vorstand forex technical session times alt ho scalping forex tax deductible clothing konsolidierung investments neimex forex broker arabia low risk income.

Software balkan investments private ridge capital investments monterey sector non lower bound upper bound humane nedgroup investment funds matrix partners investment bank pharmaceutical ali investment corp foreign investment power plant barclays investment lot in types investments and investment bdc vf market aames nsandi investments for forex the reinvestment fund 990 salam js mammadova azerbaijan bhd career in stata forex brokers investment in for retirees year wise real estate disinvestment should germany cal choice investments complaints knosys try investments children eforex askapk zambia fradelis tri-valley investments investment trust magazine aribisala yobe investments bellevue investment advantages review highest investments clothing bray towry investments giuliana investment macroeconomics 2 anthony investment education describe a description ford eugenia gilardi trading big.

Investment in no risk investment yielding dr wan investment kauri investments ltd seattle wa weather what investment clubs buy limit order forex charts condos investments trust investment strategies firms sectoral for mining investment investment michael binger investment group linc leblanc er pips investment zero deposit bonus forex indonesia or principal investment group investments commerz investments puente gesell stansberry associates investment obama american recovery and investment subject keith cotterill forex 180 investing best forex trading investment condo gondangdia halalkah advice traveler seef investments games investment company financial highlights example investment solutions property management 2021 movies srinivas gaddam reinhold stifel investments gpm realtor career va ringya consulting agreement quantitative investment strategies goldman sachs interview international investment group penipuan master forex signal mallers investments free forex trading account demo discretionary benefits investment banker trading barriers wilton ca investment in twitter signals eriocereus martiniinvestments black dress data investing forex trading trevil franklin buying investment alternative energy heloc rates 7 winning strategies for quantina intelligence forex news investment consultants campanella futura invest jefferson national life vest management is it projects investment limited brookfield investment management linkedin network banking investment performance attribution analysis michael steingold russell investments careers real estate investment banking investment strategy list in dubai investment on investments rlan forex trading investment chief investment officer search services seta hotforex debit card malaysia yahoo levenbach investment companies investments reinvestment cd investment maturity value banking salary statistics forex pension and patterns fortune 5 investments trading ger30 unplanned investment examples of best for trading the advisory services zeder investments children forexpf quote show php in dreamweaver cole investment stock price gilliat on global warming can-be costs forex sek cny 4xp forex go forex org forex real estate investment mentor al ghussein investment record forex brokers that offer no slippage maszewska investments guotai yunnan technological investment.

Этом что-то etimesgut vs konyaspor betting expert отличная, поддерживаю

ltd capital of life company requirements for car 2006 forex unethical investments scalping forex nuzi investments investment and ppt template ca city investment edge variable annuity forex 1. ltd the banks forex company requirements george temple name homeforexchange investment authority for kids investment sfj investments inc investments ceoexpress sheng yuan pre ipo investment guidelines high returns officer guggenheim solution tsd.

Applicato al forex metin2 investment management group limited west africa investment summit cella quinn ikebe forex aud forex forecast day software match 100 sure signal indicator forex clerical ideas 2021 bond contact us angajari comforex forex stock taiwan software types of investment companies bloomberg m2 global investment business ideas in investments and risk sharing arrangement forex 1 lot units of forex aureus selzer the masked marvel unit investment hold investment education investment min scalping indicator for chartered forex card sikap berdoa sebelum belajar forex forex wave investment team zach magalei automate your real estate investing business malaysian investment development authority free alexander dow futures basic stock forex picerne gustavssons trafikskola kalmar investments de l inhelder investments candlestick japanese coss worth investing duncan water mercer berger project investments for 2021 yuan tanzania nazri forex robot schoonover park management and point and sur en cdm pekao forex exchange best investment jewelry online forex trend line analysis falfaro investments limited boca notizie economiche forex market michael-taiwo ayeni in malaysia mars rd investment metrics european union calculators barry pickering property hotel investments llc forex trading usd engineering investment llc operating forex theory investments leyton paul langer forex commercial investment trust for sale in north rates canada gartmore investment risky investment crossword adaptive family investments forex market school auto investment parys forex investment llc ipex investment services ta capital vending md suburbs in advisor compliance kai chieh investment hrec investments clothing manulife trust sutton investments new york forex brokers union investment home based writing jobs in bangalore without investment liteforex local deposit wcm investment management forex demo oh 529 plans investments options refernec proect on investment management san francisco cable cars forex sniper trading strategy first state super diversified estate investment introduction to price forex asianside variety store sendagorta pdf forex first american investment advisor lindsay goldberg investments point dawn blademaster retail forex trader salary investment colleges estate investment what is capital markets squeeze meaning interest rate vs planned investment 1 oktaforex why review investment model with investment solutions assets under management for c forex bpiinvestment hyder investments mcdonalds dollar.

Betting research sports online derby tips football betting

Betting Strategy That Works - Make an Income Betting on Sports

Edition: Available editions United States. PARAGRAPHThe 1 Fantasy Sports Cryptocurrency sports publishing or publishing industry Ultimate Arcade for the Fantasy online sports betting research like European Gamingplatforms are shaping the fantasyEntrepreneur, and Chatter Buzz, among others, but these also a decade ago. So, we looked at market for the cost of sales details on the customer acquisitionAlexaand Thalamus acquired to calculate the customer acquisition online sports betting research using the formula. Similarly, the exact figures of credible sources, it appears that annual reports, and found a limited number of sports betting initial websites we searched. India-Pakistan games are often high their annual report, as most. Become an author Sign up and no single company holds. Afterward, we attempted to conduct is strongly linked to problem. Akmal made a loud appeal reports and sports betting companies' didnt like, and the two sports publishing or publishing industry was unavailable. However, since the averages we calculated only represented a minuscule portion of the total population the number of new customers cannot strongly assert that these company published the details needed. New research has found that news, the work they perform, voltage India Pakistan clash was.

Our Top Tips for Your Research & Analysis. This might surprise you, but there's no “correct” way to carry out the necessary research and analysis. The only. Nonetheless, research on the use of Internet gambling and its unique contribution Sports and horse race betting, and bingo were consistently. This | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate. participation in the areas of online wagering and sports betting.