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Extract One You hear two friends talking about travelling on public transport. They both say that commuters. Extract Two You hear two friends discussing the use of social media. What does the woman think is a strength of hers? Extract Three You hear part of a radio programme in which two journalists are discussing surveys. What does the man say about some surveys of human behaviour? For Track 4 You will hear a woman called Camilla Doyle introducing a science fair. For questions 1—8, complete the sentences with a word or short phrase.
Camilla was amazed that one scientist, David Nelson, tried to construct a mini nuclear fusion reactor in his 2. The scientists who created a diesel hybrid racing car are working on redeveloping its 3.
Camilla thinks there will be developments in new 5 spacecraft avoid hitting objects in their path. A group of students produced a 6 measurements of weather events. Many journalists have shown an interest in a special type of underwater vehicle that may be used to study the 7. While talking to scientists with exhibits at the science fair, Camilla was most impressed by their 8. Practise vocabulary, grammar or functional language tested in the exam using the additional tasks on the worksheet.
The shop started charging a dollar for a plastic bag and, started to bring their own bags. We have a rapidly increasing world population and. We need to demonstrate patience when seeking environmental change, as many organisations and individuals are still resistant to it.
For each question, look at the topic and quickly find the opinions of all of the writers on it before you answer. Writers may not offer an opinion on every topic. For questions 1—8, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning 0. To be eligible for national park status, a place must possess a unique natural, protection.
Fortunately, a cultural or recreational resource and be considered in need 1 are also considerable number of natural gems have been designated as national parks and 2 World Heritage sites. From hot springs 3 snowy peaks, these postcard-worthy destinations 4 definitely be on your list of places to visit.
Many are also home to some pretty amazing flora and fauna. The parks are outdoor enthusiasts, who can indulge in their favourite activities like hiking extremely popular 5 nature. Help your students avoid the most typical mistakes that candidates make with Get it right! Identify and correct common errors made by Cambridge English: Advanced candidates. Get it right!
Look at the sentences below. Then try and correct the mistake. Our town is really full of tourists attractions. I mean all these marvellous monuments. Take time to think about your answers before you speak. You should turn and talk to the other candidate s and involve them in a conversation in Part 1. Try and use a range of verb tenses in this part of the exam. Stick to simple words.
For questions that you have never been asked or thought about before, there are some useful phrases to give yourself thinking time that you can learn and practise using. Use Think about it sections to check students understand what they need to do for each part of the exam — great either before or after attempting an exercise. Match 1—7 with a—g to make sentences about Advanced Speaking Part 2. In Part 2, you will have to speak for.
Our town is really full of tourist attractions. A text in which there are eight gaps for missing words or phrases. Candidates have to chose the correct option A, B, C or D to fill each gap. A text in which there are eight missing words. Candidates have to think of the correct word to fill each gap. A text in which there are eight gaps. Candidates have to change a prompt word to form the correct missing word that fills each gap.
Six pairs of sentences. Candidates have to complete the second sentence in each pair, using a given key word, so that it has the same meaning as the first sentence. A text with six multiple-choice questions.
Candidates have to decide which option A, B, C or D is the correct answer to each question. Four texts on a related topic. Candidates match four prompts to elements in the text to decide the correct answers. A text in which there are six gaps and a list of seven paragraphs. Candidates have to choose the correct paragraph to fill each gap.
A long text or several short texts and ten statements. For each statement, candidates have to decide which part of the text contains the information mentioned. Candidates are given an essay title and notes. They must write an essay of — words using the notes provided. Three short conversations. Candidates have to decide which option A, B or C is the answer to two questions about each conversation.
A conversation. Candidates answer six multiple choice questions by choosing the correct option A, B, C or D. Five short monologues. Candidates have to match eight statements A—H in Task 1 and Task 2 to each speaker. The examiner asks the candidates questions about themselves. They may be asked to talk about past experiences, present circumstances and future plans. Each candidate has to talk about and compare two colour photographs out of a choice of three without interruption.
The examiner gives the candidates a question and some written prompts. The candidates discuss these together for minutes. The examiner will then ask them to make a decision together about the topic they have been discussing. Further discussion between the candidates, guided by questions from the examiner, about the same topic as the task in Part 3. For this exam, candidates receive an individual score for each of the four skills — reading, writing, listening, speaking — and Use of English.
The following tables can be used as guidance to help you convert practice test scores to Cambridge English Scale scores. Please note that these only apply when using official Cambridge English practice tests. The scores you provide may not always reflect the results the students may achieve in the live exam. They should not be used to try to predict precise scores in the live exam, but can be a useful diagnostic tool, indicating areas of relative strength and weakness.
The scores needed on any given test to achieve the scores on the Cambridge English Scale shown in the tables below will vary due to a number of factors, so scores close to CEFR boundaries need to be reviewed carefully. We recommend that this is approximately three Cambridge English Scale score points above and below the score needed to achieve the level, e.
Students who achieve only slightly higher than the Cambridge English Scale score for a given level on a practice test may not achieve that level in the live exam, and we recommend that they continue working to improve so that they reach the desired level. Correct answers in Parts 1 and 8 are worth 1 mark each.
Correct answers in Parts 5, 6 and 7 are worth 2 marks each. There are 50 possible marks in the Reading section. Correct answers in Parts 2 and 3 are worth 1 mark each. In Part 4, answers which are partly correct receive 1 mark and answers which are completely correct receive 2 marks. There are 28 possible marks in the Use of English section. Answers are marked using assessment scales which are linked to the Common European Framework of Reference. Whole marks only are awarded; there are no half marks given.
Marks for each of the criteria are combined to give 20 possible marks for each question. There are 40 possible marks for the whole paper. Listening Correct answers in the Listening paper are worth 1 mark each. There are 30 possible marks in the Listening paper. Speaking Candidates take the test in pairs, but are assessed on their individual performance by trained examiners certificated to examine at the level.
Candidate speaking performances are assessed using scales which are linked to the Common European Framework of Reference. The assessor gives 0—5 marks for each of the following criteria: Grammatical Resource; Lexical Resource; Discourse Management; Pronunciation; and Interactive Communication. Marks for each of these criteria are doubled. The interlocutor gives a mark of 0—5 for Global Achievement. This mark is then multiplied by five. Examiners may award half marks. Marks for all criteria are then combined, meaning there are 75 marks available in the Speaking test.
Top chefs and bakers are showing off their culinary invited to try the dishes. The legendary musician tops the. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs present simple or present continuous from the box. Sometimes, both tenses may be possible. Indeed, these 1 busy times for us right now. We 2 three performances at the opera house this week, and they 3 all sold-out.
As you know, we 4 at the Central Hotel again. Our agent always 5 our rooms here because they 6 such good care of us. Next week, we 7 for Paris, where our fans always 8 us feel so welcome. Our gigs at the French venue 9 off on Monday 28th at 9 p. After that, we 10 for three weeks before we 11 the road again. Which items can you use the present simple for? For questions 1—8, read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each gap.
There is an example at the beginning. Now in its seventh 0 , this year, the Rogers Estate Festival starts a day earlier: on Thursday, which means visitors have a whole extra day to enjoy it. This showcase of art and music takes place in a 1 like no other, with the castle ruins in the background. Visitors can take 3 an impressive range of exhibits and experience both the permanent and 4 collections through their five senses.
In addition to large-audience sessions, there will be more intimate moments, including poetry recitals, 5 by soloists plus painters and sculptors at work. Last but not least, on Friday, we are in for a special 6. Belinda Wilde, our guest of honour this year, is 7 her debut at the festival, giving us a preview of a new 8 of her famous symphony. Nothing and that we would have 1 of the 2. If anything, the internet has made it easier for people with specialist hobbies in different corners of the planet to 3 themselves to their passion and to support one another.
With one quick press of a key, 4 car collectors are online, comparing notes and restoration 5 with enthusiasts in distant lands. After a day in the field, birdwatchers can post sightings they consider worth sharing with likeminded enthusiasts who will immediately 7 to their passion. Thankfully, face to face contact does still take place. Historic car rallies and races have a large following. Come Sunday morning, children and adults alike still meet to swap, or perhaps even 8 , the cards missing from their collections.
Read again and look at the words before and after the gaps in the text and check for clues like determiners that, this, etc. These words may be the reason why one particular option is the correct word for the gap.
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a verb from the first box and an adjective from the second to form common expressions. Complete the sentences with the correct adjective in each gap. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs from the box to form common expressions. Choose the correct preposition to complete the sentences. Serious of passenger misbehaviour include refusing to fasten their seatbelts and trying to open the plane door mid-flight. As many as a hundred people are thought to have been injured, in some 4.
Obvious enquiry. At the core of the city is its castle, which is the main tourist The press has now turned its The media not dealt with. Readers have lost. News sharing. The public can gain information on current The way we obtain our news coverage is always 0 events from a wide variety of 1. Centuries ago, news was obtained either by word of mouth, citizens of news and by-laws, or from print, with notices posted on doors of with town criers 2 the local inn.
With the 3 of radio, whole families could 4 together in the living room to listen to the daily news bulletin. Even today, when TV sets occupy a prime 5 in the most used rooms in our house, some listeners remain faithful to their radio stations. With the 7 use of social media, news travels faster than ever before.
Minute-by-minute coverage of the news no longer relies on TV networks. Increased internet access enables individuals to share photos, opinions and even live videos with one sharp 8 on the screen. Look at the sentence below. Then try to correct it. For most of people it seems to be so natural — animals in cages. Read each pair of sentences and cross out any sentence which is wrong. Both sentences may be correct. Example: 0 WITH. But do you find 1 without sufficient cash to develop or promote it?
Fear not. Help is close 2 hand. You can crowdfund it! Crowdfunding is the practice of financing a project by raising money through contributions 3 individuals or groups of people with money to invest or the desire to 4 good. It has emerged as an accessible option for entrepreneurs and creatives around the world. Usually collected via online platforms, the sum generated allows them to both 5 their ideas to the test and gain exposure and funds for their product or invention.
You might well wonder 6 crowdfunding really is a modern-day practice. It would seem 7. Although the term and its definition were only recently added to dictionaries, throughout history, landmark expeditions, epic voyages and even national monuments have been completed 8 to the donations of ordinary people. Example: 0 IT What do you call a.
Some might give you a very clear picture of 1 to expect when you look at it! In the th 18 century, science took the important step of giving species two-part Latin names, such as Homo Sapiens, 3 a view to allowing people around the world to communicate unambiguously. Names often give a clear indication of origin japonica , colour azurea or size nana. Remember to only write one word in each gap. If you write more than one word, you will lose the mark. Ask yourself if the word is part of a fixed phrase which may require a preposition, an adjective or noun, for example.
Look carefully at the words immediately before and after the gap, but you will probably also need to recognise how the missing word connects to other parts of the text. A signal from what might, by all , be a moon outside our solar system has been spotted. Astronomers will use the Hubble Space Telescope to confirm whether this is the case. Archaeologists have recently made major fossil finds and, as a , anthropologists have been able to uncover further details regarding the decline of the Neanderthals.
As a of fact, our laboratory is on the brink of announcing a key breakthrough which is set to change everything in this field. Scientists are renowned for their curiosity or, in other quest for answers. Whatever next, it is crucial that the researchers receive the necessary funding to keep the project up and running.
Driverless cars. Pilotless planes apparently. For the are still needed in the cockpit. Every and then, while studying a particular health disorder, scientists stumble upon a cure for another condition. Complete the sentences with an article a, an, the or — if no article is necessary.
Has your personal experience of studying positive one? How far would you say that society? Which discovery or invention do you think has had society? How do you think 5. How strict do you think 6. To what extent are 7. Do you think that problem of 8. Some people say that. Complete the sentences with a compound noun formed from a word from each of the two boxes.
Recent reports state that many historical cultural heritage sites are in danger of disappearing into the sea as a consequence of. After the from a tanker, a massive clean-up operation was launched and a group has been set up to monitor the impact on marine wildlife. Many countries worldwide have witnessed the migration of millions of people from to cities.
The construction of a forest city in China is a remarkable example of sustainable. The buildings will include offices, schools and homes covered in trees and plants. Ordinary citizens are becoming key players in effective rubbish from homes and offices is correctly sorted before it is collected.
The fight against has received a boost after the Governor signed a bill targeting CO2 emissions in the state. Unfortunately, various factors including population growth, poaching and deforestation have a negative impact on the of many plants and animals. Complete the sentences and questions with an adjective from the first box and the correct preposition from the second box. The prepositions can be used more than once. Some parts of the country are still wild and 6.
The country is necessities from other countries. To be eligible for national park status, a place must possess a unique natural, cultural or recreational resource and be considered in need 1 protection. Fortunately, a considerable number of natural gems have been designated as national parks and 2 are also World Heritage sites. The parks are outdoor enthusiasts, who can indulge in their favourite activities like hiking extremely popular 5 or rafting, surrounded 6 nature.
Correct the prefixes in the words in brackets. Many of the applicants for the course were considered either lacking in relevant experience. The whole programme was to know who was responsible for what. Probooking is extremely advisable as places are limited and will be assigned on a first-come-first-served basis.
Complete the text with the correct relative pronouns from the box. Decide which, if any, relative pronouns can be omitted. Example: 0 which Choosing the university 0 is right for you is not as easy as it may seem. How far is it between the halls of residence and the place 4 your lectures will take place?
How will you travel around? On foot? By bike? Using public transport? How old are the lecturers 5 will be teaching you? Read comments on student chatrooms by anyone 6 insights might prove valuable, such as undergraduates doing the same course.
Check — there case find out the requirements and apply. For questions 1—8, read the text below. The fact is that some undergraduates who express their 3 with their university experience base their 4 on poor organisation, the lack of support received and on having fewer contact hours than expected. As higher education 5 come under increasing pressure to meet established targets and to maintain or improve their status, course guidelines should 6 what participants can expect from the course and what the course expects from them.
This should 7 a reduction in student drop-out rates. Inevitably, though, no matter how much the content and structure is spelt out, some students will turn up with 8 expectations that can never be met. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. Their nutrition and lifestyle have a direct impact on their 1 and development. One way to improve the dietary habits of schoolchildren is to make 4 to the food served for lunch.
Several leading UK chefs have launched campaigns to improve the nutritional quality of the food on school menus. Despite 5 publicity, the improvements to school dinners have not really 6. Attention has now turned to reducing excess sugar in foods and beverages.
Some local authorities are introducing a tax on drinks with more than a permitted amount of sugar. Health campaigners are delighted with this reduction and also with the news that 8 raised from the tax will go towards school sports. Look at the words before and after each gap and decide what kind of word you need to write — for example, a noun, a verb or an adjective. If you need a noun, check whether it should be singular or plural. You may only need to make one change to the word given in capital letters, but most often you will have to make two or more changes.
Complete the sentences with nouns formed from a word in the first box and a suffix from the second box. Use each word only once. Despite the campaigns by famous chefs to improve the nutritional quality of school meals, many adolescents continue to show an to adopt a healthy diet. The huge underestimated.
It would be no to say that until governments took steps, soft-drink producers had done nothing to reduce the sugar content in soft drinks. Health campaigners are convinced that the reduction in the sugar content of beverages will bring about a considerable in the current and future health of youngsters. In order to tackle a problem, you first have to acknowledge its 6. The be ignored. For questions 1—8, rewrite the sentences so they include a present or past participle clause. The judges who are considering the evidence have all got a lot of experience.
The judges 2. Referees who are not giving their full attention to matches are a cause for concern. Referees 3. The sports star who is featured in the article is said to be a millionaire. The sports star 4. Gymnasts who compete in a range of events require strength, agility, flexibility and balance. The gymnasts 5. The golfer who is wearing the yellow jumper is the favourite to win the competion. The golfer 6.
Anyone who wants to lose weight should diet and do exercise. Anyone 7. All the people who were selected for the experiment found it really interesting. All the people 8. Keith Jones, who underwent knee surgery less than a year ago, is not yet match-fit. Keith Jones. Match the adjectives in 1—7 with the pair of adjectives which have a similar, but stronger, meaning in a—g. Use a different adjective from a—g in exercise 1a to complete each of the sentences below.
More than one answer may be possible. The stand-up comedian on our cruise ship was absolutely house down. It would be totally, absolutely off-peak travel. The latest report reveals the absolutely which have overrun the original budget by millions.
The passengers were. Then try to correct the mistake. Every day we learn about wrong habits we have in our daily lives and how they affect the environment. Complete each of the three sentences with a different word formed from the word in capitals. HAND 1. First-time visitors to the area will find this guide particularly 3.
WORK 7. How travel inspired my life Today, I travel all around the world as a jewellery designer, but travel was also central to my 0. Before departure, a private tutor was hired to equip us with the 2. My experience was very different. My wanderlust was 4. I travel like a 5. The controversy caused by his statement shows no of abating. When you are self-employed, there is no such free time.
There is no. Rewrite the sentences, starting with the expressions in brackets. There was never a mention of a conflict. The reunion had only just begun when the fire alarm went off. In comparison to our ancestors, we eat more sugar and salt and our diet also induces more acid. I put forward the proposal and it was accepted immediately.
Providing role models for children can inspire them to study and may also mean that they achieve more in life. Each part has an initial sentence, a key word and a second sentence consisting of only the beginning and end. You have to complete the second sentence so it means the same as the initial sentence using the key word.
For questions 1—6, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and six words, including the word given. Here is an example 0. Example: 0 The politician is not as popular now after the recession.
The changes to the club had no effect on its existing members. The producers of the latest fashion campaign have come 3. I have it straight 4. The meeting will take place. I spoke to an eyewitness who recorded everything. Although they say nothing in official interviews, the record, many people in the advertising industry admit that they are in favour of the new guidelines. News that the novelist was staying at the hotel ahead of the book launch spread 7.
The collector heard 8. Matthew has just put me. Rewrite the sentences using the words given in bold. Write the sentences with the words in two positions if possible. The advent of the internet hit the greeting card industry hard. She will pursue a career in publishing. Do you think that targeted direct mail really persuades us to purchase products?
Future issues of the magazine will be printed on recycled paper. Example: 0 The press officer worked secretly on the campaign. Make sure the last word of your new phrase works with the parts of the sentence given at the beginning and end. Complete each sentence with the correct expression from the box. Change the form of the verb where necessary. The volunteer needed to Swahili before joining the fieldwork project.
The decision to make the area into a nature reserve is ideal because it perfectly the conservation project. Skiers have been warned to 5. We need to. The area manages to preserve its roots. The campaign organisers have project has now been set back by several months.
You may need to add words. The volcanic eruption forced the evacuation of hundreds of residents and the closure of the airport. The destruction of natural habitats causes animals to be added to the list of endangered species. The public response to large-scale disasters never ceases to amaze me. The ongoing drought has led to a ban on hose pipes for the foreseeable future.
The roads were flooded after the torrential rain and the rivers burst their banks. Example: 0 Some experts query the introduction of water restrictions during droughts. The environmentalist supported his claims with scientific evidence. If nothing is done to combat climate change, one tenth of the area will soon be under water. Solar panels and wind turbines are far more commonplace now.
I was very excited and I was looking forward for their arrival. You are going to read a review of a book about sport and philosophy. David Papineau is an eminent philosopher and a passionate lover of sport. How do they choose to hit the ball this way or that, to apply topspin or slice? After this, the floodgates were open. Five years on, those inquiries have resulted in a book, Knowing the Score.
This is essentially a collection of essays on whatever sporting questions happen to interest its author. The tone — informal, anecdotal, contrarian — is more popular philosophy than academic. More importantly — and more originally — he wants to use arguments about sport as a launching pad into philosophy. A good example comes in a chapter dealing with rulebreaking, in which Papineau sets off with a sporting. Other actions stem from a sense of fair play — such as halting the game when an opponent is lying injured — rather than arising directly from rules.
Rules are just one constraint on behaviour; all sports also have codes of fair play, which operate alongside the rules, and which, in some cases, override them. Complicating matters further is the fact that official authority ultimately has a force that is greater than both. In sport, you can ignore the rules and still play fairly, or obey the law while being thought a cheat; similarly, in a society, citizens can break the law and still do the right thing, or comply with the law yet still indulge in objectionable behaviour.
Papineau argues that we have no general obligation to obey the law; only to do what we think is right. Likewise, if footballers stopped listening when referees blow their whistles, the game would become a free-for-all. Knowing the Score covers an impressive amount of ground.
For the most part, however, he barely puts a foot wrong in what is a blinder of a performance. Choose the correct alternative to complete these sentences. Cities and transport Exam task You are going to read an article about solving traffic problems in cities. For questions 1—6 choose the answer A, B, C or D which you think fits best according to the text. Reclaiming our city streets How two experiments could help urban dwellers reclaim their streets from traffic.
Many city-dwellers around the world face a dilemma: despite living a relatively short distance from local shops and services, a wide dual-carriageway has to be negotiated in order to get there. Whilst this poses few problems for the vast majority of people, there are those who can only make it as far as half way with each push of the pedestrian crossing button.
Running out of milk has significant consequences. In the Dutch city of Tilburg, ten people have been taking part in a trial of Crosswalk, a smartphone app that gives pedestrians with limited mobility extra crossing time. This ground-breaking experiment enables participants to cross the road in one go, without needing to dodge cars. A sensor in the traffic lights is constantly on the lookout for anyone with Crosswalk on their phone.
It scans both sides of the road and adjusts the crossing time automatically, once a pedestrian carrying the app has been detected. Each user triggers a specific time which is pre-installed onto their phone and varies according to their level of mobility. In this way, delays to traffic are also minimised. The app works in combination with GPS and the software that operates the traffic lights, thus getting around the need to install further devices to control the system.
Another system under development there senses when bikes are approaching a junction and changes the lights sooner than it otherwise would, thereby giving cyclists priority over motorists. A logical extension of this technology could trigger lights to green to let ambulance or fire crews pass through. Smart traffic lights can also have environmental benefits, for example, by giving lorries a clear run through urban areas and reducing the frequency with which they have to stop and start, they thereby reduce emissions, noise pollution and damage to road surfaces.
All of this seems a far cry from the majority of urban centres. The applications of the technology are virtually limitless and could form a major weapon in the battle to recapture city. To put this into context, in Barcelona, which is anything but large relative to many modern urban sprawls, air pollution is estimated to cause around 3, premature deaths per year out of a population of 1. Additionally, it is responsible for severe effects on ecosystems and agriculture.
Traffic, which is the major contributor to this problem, also causes noise pollution beyond levels considered healthy. Scaling this bleak picture up for larger metropolitan areas could be bad for your health! The World Health Organisation recommends that every city should have a minimum of 9 m2 of green space per resident.
While some places come out well relative to this figure London scores an impressive 27, and Amsterdam an incredible The idea has at its heart the notion that streets belong to people and not cars. Roads are repurposed within an area known as a superblock, leaving only the streets around the perimeter accessible to vehicles.
Taking up less space than a neighbourhood, but larger than the blocks in many cities, their design ensures that no one would ever be more than m from a road. By increasing the frequency of bus stops on the surrounding streets and applying smart traffic management technology as used in Tilburg, it would be possible to make public transport more effective despite having significantly fewer vehicle-accessible roads.
This could be paired with a new system of cycling lanes in the areas off-limits to traffic. In paragraph 1, the writer is A offering an opinion about city life. B exemplifying one aspect of city life. In the second paragraph, we learn that Crosswalk A detects the presence of vehicles. B can be programmed by its users.
C has been relatively easy to set up. D is being trialled on one major road. B how upsetting living in some cities can be. What point does the writer make in the fourth paragraph? What does the writer suggest about green spaces in the fifth paragraph? According to the writer, all of the following people would benefit from the introduction of superblocks except A bus users.
B residents. C cyclists. D pedestrians. In a notebook, rewrite the sentences using the passive form of the verbs so they have the same meaning as the first sentence. The number after the sentence tells you how many verbs you need to change. The bus company is considering proposals to increase the number of bus routes. They told the mayor that he should create more parks. The city authorities will publish the results of the poll after they have counted the votes.
Vandals damaged the shopping centre after they had broken into it. The police arrested a man after they had stopped him for driving too fast. You are going to read an article about using video games in education. However, some educationalists are now questioning this theory and are using video games as effective educational tools thus bridging the gap between recreational and educational activities. With minimal teacher input, they set about choosing leaders and established several teams, each with its own clearly-defined role.
These teams, now party to clear common goals, willingly cooperated to ensure that their newborn world flourished, even when faced with the toughest of challenges. There may, for example, be sociological, psychological, and ethical implications built into the gameplay.
Harvey Edwards, who teaches IT classes in London, was one such educator who decided to use video games in his lessons. To do this, he chose Minecraft, an online game in which players create and develop imaginary worlds.
This dynamic bears a resemblance to traditional education, an observation highlighted by Martina Williams, one of the leaders of the group. The original version can be adapted to control which characters and content are left in. Each student can then be allocated tasks — such as house-building, locating items or problemsolving — which they must complete within the game.
Elements of more general skills can be subtly incorporated into the lessons, such as online politeness and safety, teamwork and resolving differences. Edwards feels that presenting such lessons in the context of a game students probably already know and enjoy enables him to connect with them at greater depth, and in more motivational ways.
While many progressive commentators cite extensive evidence to maintain that video games encourage collaboration and build problem-solving skills, more traditional factions continue to insist they are a distraction that do not merit inclusion in any curriculum. Even less evangelical cynics, who may grudgingly acknowledge games have some educational benefit, assert that this is only the case in the hands of creative educators. However, the accusation most often levelled at video games is that they detract from the social aspect of the classroom, particularly taking part in discussions.
Dr Helen Conway, an educational researcher, argues that video games can be used to promote social activities. Bolstered by his success, Edwards introduced his approach to another school nearby. Those who had played Minecraft before were keen for others to adopt their own style of play. Unsurprisingly, this assortment of styles and opinions as to how the game should proceed were far from harmonious.
However, the sessions rapidly. Which of the following words in the fourth paragraph is used to convey a feeling of approval? A keen B harmonious C driving D newborn. C typical students in a school environment. B students discussing a game in a group. C a group of students reading individually. D a solitary player absorbed in a game. Complete the sentences with the correct perfect tense form of the verb in brackets.
The video game. Dear Alex, I am happy to receive a letter from you. You are going to read four extracts from articles in which experts give their views on progress and tradition. For questions 1—4, choose from the experts A—D. The experts may be chosen more than once. Aloza Henry A modern mythology has developed about traditional customs holding up the financial evolution of a country; it suggests that shedding them will somehow prove liberating. This is in contrast to the fears that many commentators raise about certain patterns closer to home, such as the average parental age for starting a family.
No one has ever satisfactorily explained the reason to me as to why the balance between work and home life has shifted so far towards the former. It stands to reason, however, that those who love their jobs will be more than content with this situation. Guillermo Alvarez There are countless surveys carried out worldwide every year which monitor the satisfaction levels of different populations, and the majority of these consistently demonstrate an upward trend.
This has come about through rapid development, which has inevitably meant sacrificing some old, well-loved ways of doing things. As people are generally putting off starting a family far more than in previous generations, this will bring them the kind of maturity that will help to make what is a very challenging few years more fruitful as their offspring develop and grow. Factory work has become increasingly mechanised, leading to an expansion in more gratifying work.
What clouds the issue more than anything is the astonishing rise in the number of people on the planet. That said, by the time the first child arrives, both mother and father are generally some way up the career ladder.
Despite some notable clouds on the horizon, it has been an era which we have ended in a more comfortable and optimistic frame of mind than when we started. Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentences, a or b. He gave a to his employees some advice. Can you please explain a this theory on development to the class? You are going to read four extracts from articles in which experts give their views on banning single-use plastic products such as shopping bags and drinks bottles.
Doran Yusef There has been little debate as to whether it actually makes ecological sense to ban single-use plastic products. I find this troublesome, given that the paper and glass, which would presumably replace the plastic used in bags and bottles respectively, use more energy than plastic in their production, therefore contributing more to global warming. Changing the material that these products are created from will have minimal financial impact, as income and employment losses in plastics and packaging would be absorbed into the manufacturing of whichever material takes its place.
Costs imposed on consumers at the point of sale for plastic bags have been highly successful in reducing how many are used, so now is the moment to enforce these on other items packaged in disposable plastic. Any outright ban may be challenging to police and would have to be instigated gradually, in order to make it workable.
Hideko Suzuki Customers have little or no direct control over what packaging a company sells its products in. Along similar lines, if shops want to sell their goods, they should provide and pay for the means of carrying it home. I think the financial implications of a ban on the products are more far-reaching than anyone has predicted.
I wholeheartedly go along with the view that it needs to be addressed, but perhaps not so quickly that we end up creating more problems than we solve. These sorts of transitions take time, especially as the regulation of such a ban is likely to be extraordinarily complex. Radislav Kovac The majority of those calling for stopping short of a ban on throwaway plastics claim that it would be. I would beg to differ. Is it really such an effort to visit a supermarket to see which manufacturers still use plastic packaging, and whether customers are being provided with plastic bags?
Having said that, although plastic is undoubtedly a major pollutant, it would be wrong to completely ignore the likely impact of producing other more energy-intensive materials that might replace it. However, I believe these would be the lesser of two evils. Also, although the focus has largely been on packaging and bags, there needs to be a widening of the net to include other everyday items like drinking straws.
Joanna Muller Even though sustainable industries are relatively new, there are already sufficient examples where any reductions in revenue caused by the termination of a more traditional product are in effect cancelled out by the success of its replacement. That said, imposing an immediate ban on plastic bags may well be a step too far especially if it were too sudden for consumers to cope with. This pricing strategy has been generally straightforward to monitor and oversee, as spot checks on retailers can quickly establish whether or not any legislation is being followed.
Greener alternatives need to be found. Plastic products can be produced 2. Some tourists get to clean it up. It was successful. You are going to read four extracts from articles in which academics give their views on behaviour in schools. For questions 1—4, choose from the academic A—D. The academics may be chosen more than once. Which academic has a different view to the others about the historical trends in student behaviour? Behaviour in schools A Dorota Ignatieff Student behaviour in schools is a topic that many people are anxious about these days, and rightly so.
Recent surveys amongst teachers have given me most cause for concern, especially the reflections of those who have been teaching ten years or more who report a deterioration in standards of behaviour. This is quite some attainment given that, over the same period, funding for schools has fallen in real terms.
This shortfall is the underlying cause of poor conduct, as support for more disruptive students has been eroded, and therefore is what those in power need to rectify. B Sunil Kumble Student behaviour has been an issue for as long as schools have been in existence.
Teachers have more influence over their students than anyone, so clearly filling the apparent gap in their training would achieve more than any government minister could. The usual hysterical media coverage has made it more or less impossible to ascertain the actual extent of any fluctuation in standards of student conduct, and indeed even to know.
What we can be sure of is that, in schools where behaviour is an issue, levels of attainment for learners from better-off families have fared well, while their poorer counterparts have once again lost out. It remains to be seen whether this will lead to problems in the wider world. The root of the problem sits squarely on the shoulders of those who deal with students on a day-to-day basis. Although official figures show a steady fall in problems such as graffiti and vandalism, I believe the reverse to be true.
Students appear to have lost their focus on learning. On the surface, all appears to be well, as overall pass rates continue to rise. Nevertheless, the breakdown for how different social classes perform shows the opposite to be true for less affluent students.
Behavioural difficulties in schools are evident in students from every strata of society, but clearly. Therefore, financial assistance needs to be made available for schools to better support these vulnerable learners and to help them eradicate the underlying problem. Teachers are generally devoted to their students yet unfairly receive much of the blame when their charges misbehave. Only a handful of schools are truly and achievement. Many school pupils are 3. If students feel that they are the school, behaviour generally improves.
Many people are standards of behaviour. The parents were their daughter for always forgetting to pass on important messages to them from her teacher. The head teacher was very pointing out to anyone who would listen the link between bad behaviour in schools and academic achievement.
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