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Chapter 4 shows how changing ideas of spatiality enabled tabletop games to shift from abstract structures enjoyed by players in the Middle Ages, in which game narratives take place off a board, to ludic objects that incorporated real-life elements in their design of fictional worlds—thereby fashioning spaces that could visually accommodate narrative on the board itself. In her will from , for instance, Joan Stevens of Bury bequeathed a chess set and backgammon board.
Figure 1. These are the types of games that historians, archaeologists, and scholars have studied and typically reference in their discussions of premodern games. While game-texts are not a ubiquitous genre, they do appear in manuscripts and incunabula across Europe from the thirteenth to sixteenth centuries, especially in England, France, Germany, and Italy.
Abrams, , Leslie C. Guelf Collette Cambridge: D. My edited collection is the first comprehensive examination of the relationship between games, literature, and culture and aimed to discuss the game-texts in their own right. See: Patterson, Games and Gaming, especially chapters 3,4, 5, and 9. See Juul, Half-Real, 44 for a diagram of activities defined as games, borderline cases, and non-games.
Medieval manuscripts were often produced for a patron or circulated through a community of readers though this was not always the case ; it was not until the late fifteenth century through developments in printing, commercial book production, and the guild of Stationers established c. Wilson, eds. Brian Stock, Listening for the Text: On the Uses of 11 As interactive literary objects, game-texts are akin to other performative texts in the Middle Ages which create contingent moments among readers in each iteration of their gameplay and performance.
The texts, manuscripts, and reading communities in which these entertainments were found attest to the cultural tastes and trends of a broad social spectrum. In his recent book on English literary communities, Ralph Hanna III considers London as a distinct community of readers in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
Although London grew into a metropolis known for commercial book production in the early modern period, its status as a literary centre was equivalent to York, Bristol, Winchester, Worcester, and other sites of continual book production since it was neither a centre for administration until the s nor city with a large university. We are different and do things differently.
It is a way in which to ascribe meaning to cultural objects and circumstances. She argues that games should instead be regarded as frames, showing the fluidity of experience in and outside of the play-space. I discuss medieval and early modern game spaces in Chapter 4. Approached from different disciplines—mathematics, economics, anthropology, psychology, sociology, computer science, languages and literatures, and others—and constituting a wide range of activities, games are easy to identify but difficult to concretely define.
Indeed, each discipline seems to have its own definition of the term. In order to demonstrate how medieval game-texts differ from our modern understanding of games, it is first necessary to outline the definitions conceived by game studies scholars. The following chart includes ten influential modern definitions of game from game theorists and designers Table 1.
It is an activity connected with no material interest, and no profit can be gained by it. It proceeds within its own proper boundaries of time and space according to the fixed rules and in an orderly manner. It promotes the formation of social groupings. The rule-based, formal system determines player behavior by limiting methods for achieving a goal or solving a problem.
Limiting actions enables players to creatively explore possibilities in support of achieving their desired outcome. Games also include definite known outcomes. For most definitions, theorists note that players either know the outcome or know the type of outcome they could achieve by winning the game. Player autonomy ensures a safe space for surmounting challenges and handling conflict.
Finally, games include a goal, which is the specific outcome that players will strive to achieve whether personal or shared. The goal not only generates a sense of purpose, but also reinforces participation and motivation through a feedback system. Sid Meier offers such a broad definition that other activities, such as cooking, would have to be included as well.
More implicitly, definitions of games by game designers, scholars, and critics often situate notions of player autonomy and cultural production squarely within the domain of modern history. It is not that people in the Middle Ages did not play games, but rather that the games they enjoyed upheld and reflected familiar cultural systems and were a significant aspect in the social fabric of those who played them.
The idea of labour may have been defined differently or not as sharply for the nobility, but pastimes were often considered to be methods for occupying free time and involved active participation. Stewart E. Tallandier, , 9. When is a game in the Middle Ages considered a game as opposed to play, pilgrimage, love, and so on? Can such boundaries exist?
And, perhaps more importantly for the purposes of this chapter, how do we formulate a boundary between a game and a non-game in a literary context? The concepts of game and play changed considerably throughout the Middles Ages. See: Huizinga, Homo Ludens, Games, in essence, become the object of play a deviation from the term found in modern notions of game.
Atkins Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , line All in all, it is a slippery lexicological customer, with many friends and relations in a wide variety of fields. Game-texts thus present us with candidate media objects for the study and destabilization of properties long thought to be essential for considering what makes something a game.
Kolve continues his philological discussion, arguing that vernacular drama in the Middle Ages was often perceived as a game, which sets it apart from Latin liturgical drama often called ordo, processio, and repraesentatio. Glending Olson cautions us on assuming a seamless understanding of play in the Middle Ages, which could be applied to the idea of games as well: The idea of recreation is in one sense an attempt to fit play into an ethical framework.
In some respects medieval views of play are reasonably close to modern ones, but in general they tend to treat the subject from an ethical perspective rather than a psychological, sociological, or anthropological one. I prefer to stay with medieval theorizing here, especially since its point of view. For medieval players, games were not just a form of recreation, but one means by which they could understand their own moral nature within the social fabric of medieval society.
The scribe-compilers were obviously not always following Aristotelian ethics, but their choices of textual and visual arrangement for entertainment existed within a larger cultural framework, which can only be expounded by analyzing these historical, physical, and material spaces. Wippel, G. Fransen, and D. While the term has become widely adopted among medievalists, many scholars have criticized its ahistorcism and multi-variant definitions.
Lewis argued that courtly love represented an idealization of sexual love, but described it as a social process created by landless knights rather than an exclusively literary mode. In response to such claims, D. Russell A. Green, Poets and Princepleasers, Following a string of encounters with mythological gods and goddess in the Garden of Pleasance, the narrator witnesses a game of chess played between Deduit Pleasure and a young lady. After the game results in a tie, the narrator subsequently begins a game with the lady in an effort to win her love.
Like chess games in other romances, here the chess game acts as a performance of courtly behaviour. Similarly, the French clerc-chevalier debates such as Florence et Blanchefleur, written in the twelfth century, focus on a central question: is it the clerk or knight who is the best at love? Le Roi Qui Ne Ment was played by both men and women, and, more important for our purposes, specific rules of the game varied widely depending on the region or particular group of players.
While the game could have a definite winner and losers , this was not always the case and the game could continue ad infinitum until the participants tired of the game—a notion that would be troubling for the modern definitions of game quoted above. This open, playful, and non-restrictive attitude toward medieval games is prevalent among numerous game-texts. Cassamus encourages this game in an effort to pair Edea and Cassiel.
In Le joli Buisson de Jonece, Jean Froissart notes that a gathering of nobles played the game as a form of elite entertainment. Robin, in his refusal to respond to a question Marion deems unsuitable, pays a forfeit demanded by the king: he must kiss Marion. In the Tournoi de Chauvency , Jacques Bretel observes three question-and-answer games played by the aristocracy following the tournament of Chauvenci, including Le Roi Qui Ne Ment and Le Jeu aux Rois et aux Reines, which he lists as separate games.
Kenneth Varty conjectures that the game was played with four men and four women. Each player would cast two or three dice and match their roll to a medallion. Table 1. In order to create opportunities for intimate tension, the author occasionally separates the outcomes in certain sums depending on whether the player was a man or woman, and dictates different actions a player can complete.
One combination of 5. Chance by casting dice is not figured as the primary agent in love, but as an implied, necessary factor for generating this amorous play. Although specific outcomes 77 Ibid. See also A. Petersburg, for a similar use of romance characters. In both instances, the objective of the game is to participate in this fiction. The manuscript provides the feedback loop necessary to facilitate play, but the nuances of the text area are only revealed in the moments of play between the players and their relations.
Although such a game shows evidence of rules and autonomy, its lack of competition and goals particular to the game would render it an edge case within the confines of many of the definitions of the modern game. The appeal of courtly literature and games was in this access to specialized knowledge: a code of conduct only the most noble could seek to imitate, perform, and enjoy. In this way, medieval game-texts reinforce the main tenet of games as formal systems and are akin to medieval board games like chess and merels at the same time they unsettle the criteria for modern games such as quantifiable goals and outcomes as posited by modern game studies scholars.
Another feature of modern game definitions troubled by medieval literary ludic games is the assumption that all games include disequilibrial Avedon and Sutton-Smith , quantifiable Salen, Zimmerman, and Juul , or unproductive Caillois outcomes.
In the fifteenth-century Chaucerian dice-poem The Chaunce of the Dyse c. While other game-texts such as Ragman Rolle equalize chance e. Players cast three dice and match their rolls to a corresponding stanza, a series of seven lines that assigns the player a specific character-portrait. Fortune 6. In this way, this game-poet shows a clear working knowledge of both literary conventions and the conventions of recreational dicing games.
While the author also includes good and bad fortunes, the entertainment lay primarily in the discussions and dalliance within the text. As the rolls are order-independent according to basic combinatorics, the probability of receiving any given fortune ranges from 0. Hereafter, line numbers for The Chaunce of the Dyse will be given in parentheses.
See Ethics and Eventfulness, While gambling games such as hazard were a subject of continual sanction and criticism by the Church, courtly games of chance that mimicked such gambling games did not fall under such scrutiny since their outcomes did not include life-changing stakes.
For the Pardoner, false outcomes become an enabler of immoral things to come: Seven is my chaunce, and thyn is cynk and treye! Burrow and Ian P. Wei Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, , For a comprehensive study of gambling in France, see also Thomas M. Larry D. The Chaunce of the Dyse was thus an acceptable, and indeed prestigious, game that empowered aristocratic men and women to play within the space of love.
While game-texts could be experienced singularly and read as text, the convergence of game, text, and player brings the game as an object into existence. It 90 Chaucer, Riverside Chaucer, lines The narrative becomes the personas of the players, while the rules outline the form of play.
The fusion of literary and game traditions thereby produces a distinct form of entertainment. For the game-texts discussed above, game-poets signal this lusory attitude through the literary content, visual aesthetics, and manuscript contexts.
However, as we shall see in Chapter 3, medieval game-texts were often appropriated for pedagogical purposes and were regularly used as learning tools outside of gaming contexts. Therefore, typically playful markers such as the use of dice with a given poem may or may not encourage a lusory attitude. Consider an anonymous Middle-English dice-poem found in four manuscripts dating from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
Since the A-version focuses more exclusively on matters of love, Braekman suggests that the original text is based from a dice-book for lovers and a book on general prophecy. The author of most of the poem even occasionally stands in as a surrogate counsellor for revealing the future and aiding the reader; in fortune 5. The author is concerned not only with imparting a general knowledge of the future, but also reinforcing Christian moral practices.
Chance in the Middle Ages, as Howard Patch has argued, often becomes subservient to divine providence in order to normalize previously conflicting ideas about future events. Organized by combination from 6. Although the final outcome is not favourable, the poet does not hint at this gambling convention; instead he remarks that the player should pray hard in order to be redeemed.
In this manner, the game could be played with serious intentions or it could be played as a ludic pastime. From the few interactive game-texts discussed in this chapter, the signification of the ludic function is often signaled through ordinatio and aesthetics, such as the placement of the Chaunce of the Dyse among other texts encouraging debates on matters of love in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Fairfax 16 and Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Bodley e.
When is a text then not a game? While the use of dice may at first glance suggest a ludic function, the purpose of the poem is political rather than personal. Found in at least fourteen manuscripts, the poem appears most often in miscellanies with other prophetic texts, many of which deal with the War of the Roses and England. IV, f. Media and digital humanities scholars have often used premodern texts such as the prophetic Chinese I Ching as examples when explaining concepts in interactive electronic literature.
The textual matrix in Le dodechedron de fortune also generates a plurality of possibilities that can be interpreted as ludic or non-ludic depending on the audience. The transcription is my own. Brackets represent pictograph of dice corresponding to the number. Montfort notes how: The typical interactive fiction game differs from a game like chess not only because the players in chess oppose each other but because in that game total information about the situation is always available to players.
Not only is the state of the game i. In this way, medieval game-texts do not easily fit into discussions of modern interactive fiction, yet they are more than the sum of Aarseth, Cybertext, Nor is it entirely alien from that of reading.
These games function as both social and literary activities that encourage participation through the manuscript interface and interactive mechanics. While medieval audiences considered them as parlour games to be played in a social gathering, the texts nevertheless struggle to find coherence within modern definitions of game and its modern cousin interactive fiction.
While certain medieval game-texts embody some of these categories e. From this discussion of medieval game-texts, I propose the following features for identifying medieval games: 1. A formal system that can be either open or closed. Given the modularity and plurality of forms medieval literary games enjoyed as they circulated, games could include a plurality of formal rules, regional styles, and so on.
Outcomes are not always known, quantifiable, or disequilibrial e. Games do not always include a beginning, middle, and end, but are at the discretion of the players. Interactive participation and player effort can be competitive or non-competitive. A game-text can elicit participation through literary modes. Contrary to many modern definitions, the concept of player effort in many medieval game-texts does not necessarily need to be challenging.
Games emphasize social activities and serve a social function. While modern games often include individuals versus non-human agents e. These criteria also align with other tabletop games enjoyed in the Middle Ages. On fol. Backgammonspiele im Ms. Matthias Teichert Berlin: de Gruyter, , The game board does 53 not signal a particular game, but rather acts as an empty vessel for a number of games, problems, and variants.
Furthermore, while the travel route and list of games seem distinct, the game board image acts as a pictorial hinge, linking them together. Inked in the same hand as the travel route, the play spaces of the board follow an alphabetic numeric system for placing pieces similar to the chess problems discussed in Chapter 2 and may have been used as a practice board in order to learn different games or solve game problems presented in the subsequent pages.
The game board also serves a dual purpose and could be used for formal games or problems with differing outcomes and negotiable consequences. Modern definitions of games do not sufficiently take into account the cultural production and dissemination of medieval games and their relation to other forms of recreation i. The worst thing is to wander about aimlessly.
His letters are brought and he reviews the latest round of disasters. For Alfred Binet, Psychologie des grands calculateurs et joueurs en echec Paris: Hachette, , Bernard Cafferty London: Batsford, , As a man rising in political stature from among the lower ranks of society, Cromwell is, in effect, also creating this new political game as much as he participates in it, pioneering new forms of political maneuverings in early modern England—that is, moves that mark a distinct shift from medieval to early modern practice.
This wider, more general application of games to non-game-related tasks—a hypothesis that considers whether playing games can not only improve cognitive abilities such as memory and attention, but also enable a transference of expertise to other tasks—is currently a prevailing area of research in the fields of cognitive psychology and neuroscience. It is straightforward to imagine this kind of trade-off in a strategy game like chess, where one could improve one's decisions by spending more time exploring possible moves.
Berkman has also conducted a study showing that the brain can improve performance for a given task, but that cognitive improvement does not necessarily transfer to other environments. Conversely, neuroscientist Joaquin Anguera, et al. Thompson, Mark Blair, and Andrew J. Berkman, Lauren E. Kahn, and Junaid S. Aguera, et al. Aimed at older players, Brain Age argues that completing these puzzles keeps certain regions of the brain active, thereby developing increased mental capacity.
Were games thought of as useful for gaining knowledge and improving cognitive ability? How were games taught, given their many regional variations, and what role did narrative play in the composition of these problems? This chapter addresses these questions by continuing the discussion of games as fluid textual objects I began in Chapter 1 by examining one form in which knowledge and application of games circulated in manuscripts: problems.
Game problems—that is, puzzles composed within a closed, logical system containing a definite solution—have long been enjoyed by players not only as recreational activities, but also as exercises to learn techniques to improve their skill at the game. This particular problem is not of Arabic origin, but rather part of a supplementary collection of fifteen problems composed in thirteenth-century Europe.
The other eighty-eight problems are 61 derived from Arabic manuscripts. Problem seventy-three is a chess mate in three puzzle that is solved by checkmating with a black pawn—a move considered highly skilled, for the lowest valued piece wins against the highest valued piece Figure 2. I should have pleyd the bet at ches And kept my fers the bet therby. Kc3; 2. Pd3 m. Benson, 3rd edn. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, , lines Despite the prevalence of game problem collections across Europe, including seven extant problem collections in later medieval England, scholars have paid little attention to the genre, with the exception of chess historian Harold Murray in his pioneering tour de force, A History of Chess.
Franklin D. Guillemette Bolens and Paul B. Game problems are more than simple exercises: they incorporate varying degrees of storytelling, aesthetics, layout, and compilation strategies in order to create interactive experiences for players, who use problems as supplements to learning the game or—similar to websites like Lumosity—as tools to sharpen mental faculties. As a result, game problems demonstrate how medieval games, like game-texts, could be used for multiple purposes depending on the.
The first section examines how mathematical problems, as the first type of problem in the Middle Ages used as tools for learning and skill acquisition, become intertwined with recreation and games. In both instances, game problems, which have their roots in medieval education, intersect with ideas of learning and cognition and display the fluidity and adaptability of medieval games.
Problems demand active participation, requiring the solver to play along and initiate the experience. In order to be considered a mathematical problem, mathematical concepts and principles must be used in the derivation of an answer. While problems may appear as a word or visual problem, such a composition stands in to illustrate a technique or a mathematical concept.
Grouws New York: MacMillan, , Puzzles and problems adhere to specific rules and have set goals but they are, for the most part, not inherently competitive in nature. Game designer Chris Crawford elaborates that puzzles are static and unchanging while games are dynamic, but modern exceptions—such as the card game Solitaire and the adventure video game genre—do exist.
For medieval games and game problems, each playthrough can have a number of divergent possibilities, while a modern crosswords or chess puzzles do not often change on the page with each interaction. The oldest known collection of recreational mathematical problems, the Latin treatise Propositiones ad Acuendos Juvenes [Problems to Sharpen the Young], was first composed in Anglo-Saxon England; written by Alcuin of York c. Pracceptum itaque ei fuerat, ut omnia haec ultra omnino illaesa transferret.
Dicat, qui potest, quomodo eos illaesos transferre potuit. Solutio: Simili namque tenore ducerem prius capram et dimitterem foris lupum et caulum. Tum deinde venirem lupumque transferrem, lupoque foras misso rursus capram navi receptam ultra reducerem, capramque foris missa caulum transveherem ultra, atque iterum remigassem, capramque assumptam ultra duxissem.
Sicque faciente facta erit remigatio salubris absque voragine lacerationis. The only boat he could find could only take two of them at a time. But he had been ordered to transfer all of these to the other side undamaged. Say, he who is able, in what manner the man was able to cross the river with the goods intact? Solution: I would take the goat and leave the wolf and the cabbage.
Then I would return and take the wolf across the river. Having put the wolf on the other side I would take the goat back over. Having left that behind, I would take the cabbage across. I would then row across again, and having picked up the goat take it over once more. Thus, by doing all this rowing the man will become healthy, and without any lacerating catastrophe].
All translations from Latin are my own. The object of the problems was, of course, to teach the reader mathematical principles or, at the very least, provide an interesting puzzle to pass the time, but D. Costa London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, , and Rushton Fairclough, trans. Problem twenty-one, for instance, asks the solver how many sheep can be put into a field: Est campus, qui habet in longitudine pedes C C et in latitudine pedes C. Volo ibidem mittere oves, sic tamen, ut unaquaeque ovis habeat in longitudine pedes Vet in latitudine pedes IV.
Dicat, rogo, qui valet, quot oves ibidem locari possunt. Solutio: Est campus, qui habet in longitudine pedes C C et in latitudine pedes C. I want to place sheep in it so that each sheep has a space of five feet by four feet. How many sheep can be put in the field? Solution: This field has the length of feet and breadth of feet. The number of fives in is 40; dividing by 4 the fourth part of is Since there are 40 fives and 24 fours, fills the quota. Therefore, this is the number of sheep that can be placed into the field].
The agricultural economic problem here reveals how, for many of the algebraic problems, solvers could apply them directly to their own real-world concerns, whether for increasing the efficiency of their operations or gaining profit. Indeed, recreational mathematics problems originated from mercantile trade and many problem collections deal chiefly with finance, exchange, and other issues relevant to the lives of merchants.
The problem Fibonacci is perhaps most known for is a recreational mathematical problem involving the reproduction of rabbits. At the end of the nth month, the number of the pairs of rabbits is equal to the number of new pairs of rabbits. For the first month, then, the first pair mates, so there is still only one pair.
At the end of the second month, the female rabbits gives birth to a new pair, so there are now two rabbit pairs in the field. At the end of the third month, the first pair produces another set of offspring, so there are now three pairs in the field.
At the end of the fourth month, both the first and second pairs produce offspring, so five pairs of rabbits exist in the field. Thus, the number of pairs at the end of the year is F Mathematical problems, due to their usefulness for solving everyday concerns and playfulness, also find applicability among women educating their children and governing households.
She also likely had a rudimentary understanding of mathematics and computation. As the only book written by a woman to survive the Carolingian period, Liber Manualis thus sheds rare insight into the education and knowledge of noble women. Women were often not only educators, but also household managers in charge of stock, farming, revenue, servants, and entertaining guests.
Judith M. If algebraic problems exhibit aspects of pleasure and edification and could be used recreationally, then what is their relation to medieval games? Madeleine Pelner Cosman, trans. The accepted dates are c. See James Woodrow Hassell, Jr. As questions that illuminate cultural values and relatable situations through discussion and role-play, the demandes reflect interests and concerns found within spaces of dalliance, much like the sections reserved for games as one way to amuse guests in Le Menagier de Paris.
Like other demandes in the collection, the algebraic problems could be asked within a social parlour game among house guests, family, or friends. Similarly, other mathematical problems in the collection focus on themes of feasting, wedding gifts, travel, and Ibid. The translation is my own. Therefore, there are 36 guests present at the meal. Five problems , , , , and among the 40 mathematical demandes explicitly focus on supper, for instance.
Earlier demandes in Les Adevineaux amoureux focus on questions of love, and the mathematical problems add a sense of realism to the collection. Medievalists do not yet know the origin of the mathematical problem group in the demandes collection, but the problems seem derived, in part, from mercantile exercises similar to those composed by Fibonacci; three problems depict wine merchants , Hassell, Amorous Games, 22 and Still others discuss the exchange of animals , capital gains , and dealings at a tavern The insertion of a recreational mathematical problem group into a collection of demandes therefore does not recycle or appropriate the genre, but rather illustrates how easily the genre could suit a variety of entertainments and social classes.
Mathematical exercises were not only used in university curricula and the apprenticeship of merchants, but also enjoyed by noble and gentle men and women as ways in which to pass the time as a social amusement and form of edification, including in good household management, which reflects the values and lifestyles of the gentry and nobility.
Recreational mathematics, the earliest problems to appear in medieval England, thus move between spaces of learning and play and—as we have seen above—was adapted for either educational or leisurely pursuits. The next section of this chapter explores more closely the relationship between skill acquisition, cognition, and storytelling in medieval chess problems—the most popular type of game problem in medieval Europe.
For Mason, learning chess was more than simply memorizing solutions to problems. Mason also gradually increments the quantity and variety of pieces on the board, moving from pawns the simplest pieces to the Queen the most complicated piece , and presents not only the correct sequence of moves for the outcome, but also a reasoning behind the strategy. Chess is such a complex logic system that numerous theories for skill acquisition have been developed over the past two hundred years that combine ideas of learning, cognitive processing, and the mind.
While chess may at first appear simple in design, with sixty-four chequered squares, thirty-two pieces, two opponents, and one winner, the number of variations—which contains between — positions and possible chess game variations in the modern game—makes this finite game highly complex. His conclusions, however, did not omit illegal moves. Allis also estimated that the possible number of game variations to be , which is more than the number of atoms in the universe.
Were there strategies for teaching chess to novices and, if so, how did they differ from later epistemological approaches? Were medieval chess problems adapted for non-game related tasks? This section examines the strategies and methods by which teachers, composers, and scribe-compilers taught the popular game of chess to players in medieval England, including ecclesiastics, the gentry, and university students, in order to understand how medieval players learned the game and how this education differs from our modern notions of chess and skill acquisition.
While game studies scholars paint an image of the static nature board games before the invention and dissemination of video games, chess in the Middle Ages was in fact a game in transition. Originating in northern India, chess traveled to Spain and Italy sometime before CE and entered a long period of experimentation—in pieces, rules, and material representation—throughout medieval Europe.
Our modern rules did not come into play until about , when the Bishop changed from a leaping to a fluid piece and extended his movement to the edges of the board and the Queen adopted the powers of the Rook and Bishop, Ibid. Thomas E. The earliest playing pieces, found in Gloucester and Winchester, date between CE and are sculpted from deer antlers in an abstract Eastern style.
The earliest references to chess show not merely curiosity, but interest in learning the game. See also Murray, A History of Chess, Hassall and J. Other chess pieces found in England from the eleventh to the fifteenth centuries were created from chalk, whalebone, wood, and, most notably, jet. For a table of pieces and their materials, see Ian D.
Alexander de Voogt Leiden, , In England, two assizes called the short assize and the long assize were common forms of play, the latter of which was used in chess problems. Earlier Anglo-Saxon games, such as Hnefatafl, are mentioned rarely in Anglo-Saxon literature, as their rules were disseminated orally among players.
Conversely, Murray, History of Chess, , lines The differences in movement for the long assize are as follows: the King can leap to a third square on his first move as long as he cannot be checked by his opponent. He cannot leap out of check. After the first move, he can only move one square in any direction. A pawn can move two squares in its initial move and can capture another pawn, called en passant.
The Queen and promoted pawn have the same first move. See Murray, A History of Chess, By the sixteenth century, chess and other pastimes had become a well-established form of entertainment in household gardens and chambers across England. Quarrie Berkeley: University of California Press, , And it is the more commendable and also commodiouse if the players haue radde the moralization of the chesse, and whan they playe do thinke upon hit; whiche bokes be in englisshe.
But they be very scarse, by cause fewe men do seeke in plaies for vertue or wisedome. Chess, in particular, improves the mind and teaches moral behavior. Setting up the board, as it were, was both a recreational and spiritual matter that could incite Sir Thomas Elyot, The Boke Named the Gouernour, ed. Historical documents, material artifacts, and literary references may reveal opinions and evidence of gameplay, but they fail to show in detail how the game might have been taught in every case, especially when the specific rules of the game could be changed so easily depending on the audience or locale.
Problems recorded on rolls and in manuscripts reveal another way in which players learned chess in the Middle Ages. The Anglo-Norman, Latin, and Middle English chess problem manuscripts show evidence of an increased interest in mastering chess as the manuscripts operate as sites of learning for players. As I will demonstrate, the problems also act as cognitive exercises for learning skills such as problem-solving and logic, and could be adapted to other academic subjects such as astronomy and mathematics.
Moreover, chess problems reveal that board games were not considered static objects by medieval composers, compilers, and players, but rather dynamic, malleable textual playspaces. Chess problems were not only valued differently from modern games in terms of their composition, but were also used for different purposes by the players and readers who enjoyed them. Seven surviving manuscripts in England, which date from c. Problem collections also range from as few as two problems to as many as fifty-five and, and, as a co-occurrence matrix shows Table 2.
MS Porter c. Chess problems in England may not have been overly popular among players, but their composition as an aesthetic puzzle and cognitive exercise reveals how the mechanics, texts, layout, and ordinatio render them useful as pedagogical tools for learning the art and skill of chess in England—characteristics that also show how medieval composers, compilers, and players thought of their game spaces.
Two chess problems appear at the top of fol. Although MS O. These introductory texts may have not only prepared the reader for the other academic and devotional texts in the manuscript—effectively serving as warm-up exercises—but also offered a respite from reading and studying. A number of labyrinths, such as those found at Amiens and Reims, were designed as paths for personal meditation.
Niemeyer, , Figure 2. The images are therefore intended to provide a site for exploring matters of the soul that can then be plumbed further by engaging with the other spiritual texts in the manuscript. The next leaf, fol. Clergymen often criticized board games as activities that encouraged idleness, addiction, gambling, and other sins, but there is no indication in MS O.
In fact, despite bans from the Church, board games continued to be played in abbeys and monasteries throughout the Middle Ages. The games could be played by a reader and another player, much like the game boards and interactive game-texts discussed in Chapters 1 and 3. In the first phase, each player takes turns placing pieces on the board, and after the pieces have been placed players move pieces onto unoccupied spaces. A player wins if he or she leaves the opponent with no moves or the opponent only has two pieces left.
Alfonso X also includes a variant of the game using three cubic dice in Libros de los juegos. A die cast during the first phase of the game with throws of 6, 5, 4; 6, 3, 3; 5, 2, 2; or 4, 1, 1 could break an enemy line and capture a piece. If a line was formed with the charging piece, the opponent would lose two pieces from the board. After all pieces have been placed on the board, the game continues without the use of dice.
While the merels board in MS O. Players begin by placing twelve pieces onto the two rows closest to them and the two rightmost spaces in the centre of the board. The scribe clarifies this positioning by using green and red ink on each side of the board, though the four pieces placed in the centre row are reversed see Figure 2. Murray speculates that the Moors introduced the game to Spain.
Murray, A History of Board-Games, In contrast to the two quadrilateral games, this game uses a 2 x 11 squared board with twenty-four points coloured red and green presumably indicating twelve gaming pieces for each player placed along the outer edge of the board. The game appears to have started with a red piece moved to the centre point of the third row and a green piece moved to the centre point of the first row see figure 2.
Dent, , The game of Fox and Geese also sometimes accompanied Merels. London: George Bell, , Dent, , and That they are not accompanied by rules is also telling: while the rules to merels and alquerque were certainly played on these board layouts, there may have been other rules in circulation as well.
The textual game boards therefore do not necessarily signal or dictate the rules of the game. While this may be suggest that game boards betray signs of signification, I argue that the boards become an open structure ripe for play depending on the immediate needs of their audiences.
The game boards could be played by a small group of clergy playing together huddled around the manuscript, or perhaps by two monks who wish to use the game as a moral vehicle to reflect on earthly pleasure. Scholars do not have direct access to such experiences, of course, but we can speculate on the ways in which such games may have been used and understood based on their compilation and readership.
That the chess problems and rules appear together on the page opposite the game boards indicate a clear proximal relationship to leisurely play. The inclusion of the poem of chess rules, which appears in four other extant manuscripts including MS Cleopatra B IX, suggests that chess was a new, unfamiliar game that readers may not have been as acquainted with as they were with other games in the manuscript.
The scribal adaptations in the manuscripts copied in England Ibid. Gambling in Islam Leiden: Brill, , Dic regi scaccum; si semita non patet illi, Matus erit factus nusquam latuisse coactus. Miles et alphinus, rex, roc, regina, pedinus, Et inter scaccos alphinus inutilis astat. Says the king of chess; If the path is not clear to him, Checkmate will remain hidden by constraints.
While the rules familiarize readers with the game, the omission of a chessboard upon which to play suggests that readers may have had access to a physical board. Furthermore, in addition to teaching chess, the poem may have also been conceived as a supplement for solving the chess problems directly above it on the same page. The two chess problems in MS O. The first problem in MS O.
Murray notes that the condition mate on c1 truncates the move 5 Rh2 m. Murray, A History of Chess, Taken together, the two problems in MS O. Unlike other collections in England, the inclusion of the two problems by the scribes was not to provide an overview for a beginner or showcase a variety of techniques; their utility as a pedagogical tool for teaching chess in this instance is limited.
What then is the relation between these two problems? They could have been the only problems on hand, of course, but a Persian manuscript, MS Berlin Orient. This instance, coupled with the pairing of the problems in MS Cleopatra B IX, suggests that these two problems ostensibly circulated together outside large problem collections.
The interplay among the images, as a reader moves from devotional texts and drawings of recreational game boards to game problems that sharpen the mind before moving onto pedagogical texts, therefore elicits a virtual dimension that requires reader interaction in order to render them meaningful.
In his treatise on education, Didascalicon c. Aptitude gathers wisdom, memory preserves it. Each of the three, the material base, the script or image, and the text, is a changing or evolving thing, a product of a compromise between traditional norms and the contemporary needs of an audience.
The chess problems in MS O. Like other medieval pedagogical games like Rithmomachia and Ludus Astronomorum, these chess problems reflect a meditative epistemology that goes beyond rote learning found in other medieval educational practices. See also: Harold J. MS Sloane is a miscellany containing treatises on mathematics, astronomy, astrology, physiognomy, chiromancy, medicine, and dream theory.
The problem collection is copied carelessly on fols. The chess problems are arranged in an order that differs from those found in Bonus Socius and in the contemporary collection Civis Bonaniae [Citizen of Bologna] c. Piermont Morgan London: Chiswick, , The problems in MS Sloane also lack answers, but some of the problems include special notation indicating moves to reach a solution. While the problem collection in MS Sloane is entirely unusable since the problems remain unfinished, it nevertheless shows a set of problems that may have been intended to teach chess to students, novices, or ecclesiastics and, like MS O.
As a result, combinations that involve mates by weaker pieces, such as pawns and ferses, immediately reveal For notation in chess, see Murray, A History of Chess, The eighteen chess problems found on fols. The translations are my own. I have modernized some spelling for clarity. Murray also transcribes selections of the text in A History of Chess, The intended patron of this treatise, who requested the problems according to the compiler did not desire an assortment of problems in Latin, such as those in MS Sloane , Robert Desjarlais, Counterplay: An Anthropologist at the Chessboard Berkeley: University of California Press, , 8.
The manuscript was penned and compiled in an academic miscellany at Abbotsbury Abbey in Dorset. Entered in a neat hand, the problems appear in their own quire and may have circulated separately before becoming bound in the manuscript. Another scribe later entered two problems on fol.
Like The Book of the Duchess, the compiler pairs two aristocratic activities, chess and hunting—two pursuits that required skill and could be rewarded with high esteem from peers. The first problem acts as a means by which to train the reader in how to read and think through a given problem, and subsequent problems include solutions in prose without any special notation.
In the first problem, the chess board is not just a place to teach the reader about solving problems, but a visualized space to craft a narrative of the events taking place on the board—a literary aspect certainly lacking in teaching modern players how to play chess. Here the pieces represent more than their movements and combinatory play, but can also become motifs for reflecting courtly virtue. The emphasis of the problems in MS Cleopatra B IX lies in finding the combinatorial interplay of the pieces and developing analytical skills for best utilizing specific pieces.
Problem 7, for instance, focuses on pawn promotion to a ferse and Problem 11 comprises an exercise focusing on the movement of the bishop Figure 2. The collections in England, Tony Hunt notes, show prominence for problems focusing on single pieces. The conditional problems, such as Problem 14 Figure 2.
How do we explain medieval problems that use illegal moves and odd movements? How do they help the chess novice improve his or her game? For modern chess problems, composers often arrange the pieces as a snapshot that could hypothetically occur in an actual game. The genre has evolved aesthetically as chess became a more prominent game for leisure and, later, professional competition.
Consider, for instance, a chess problem first published in a issue of Il Problema Figure 2. No matter where the king moves, no matter what scenario is played out, he is always mated. To a novice of chess, this puzzle may look overwhelming or inconceivable.
Appreciating the aesthetics of the chess problem requires developing an eye for the skill in composition and the craft of playing the game. Modern chess players often evaluate the beauty of chess problems with a specific set of conventional criteria: 1. Economical: Modern chess problem stress the importance of economy. There are no extraneous moves or pieces on the board. Everything on the board has a purpose. Legal: Chess composers and players often deem problems that fall within the legal rules as superior because they could potentially be used, inspired, or encountered within a game.
They, thus, have a certain practicality beyond the problem itself. Key Move: Typically, the first move must be the only move that will eventually lead to a mate. Therefore, it must be unique in some way. Helpmates are often exempted since, by their nature, they often have more than one method to solving a problem. Thematic: The problem illustrates a particular idea or set of ideas.
Puzzle Factor: Occasionally, the solution is an unlikely move, such as sacrificing a powerful piece or promoting a pawn to a knight instead of a queen. Chess problems show the imagination and depth of thought of the composers. For modern players of chess, the beauty of a game problem lies in the harmonious and sometimes paradoxical moves of game pieces as a source of art, inspiration, and, of course, learning.
Modern conventions for determining problem aesthetics were not necessarily the focus of medieval problem composers, however. As problems circulated, compilers sought to improve solutions and amplify problems according to their own interests and expertise.
As we have already seen, the aesthetics of chess problem composition in the Middle Ages manifest as scribes and composers weave together illumination, storytelling, and composition. It is within the convergence of these different aspects within the manuscript that signals the intended audience—features that could all be considered skillful artistic endeavors in their own right.
For MS Cleopatra B IX, the compiler not only rendered some of the problems into verse, but the illuminator also portrayed ornate chess boards, alternating yellow and clear chequered squares, red and clear, and black and clear on various boards. He also occasionally framed the game boards with red, yellow, brown or black borders, and each problem begins with alternate red and blue majuscules.
In addition to copying selections of the introduction and verse narratives for the problems, this compiler also re-arranged the problems, indicating that the organization of problems was becoming a key element in teaching the reader the art of playing chess. Like MS Cleopatra B IX, the introduction requests that the reader not disclose any of the chess problems for fear that their publication will lead to wide circulation and thus losing the essence of the strategy. The compiler of the problems in MS Royal 13 A XVIII organizes the problems in a manner that sets the flow and sequence for a reader of the gentry to learn moves, strategy, and gameplay—a positional sense to apply to actual games.
Join us for a week of fun and adventure! Her training coupled with Amazonian technology helped to develop a range of extraordinary skills and tools. Be your own Wonder Girl and explore what it takes to fly a plane, build a truth detector, and learn how a boomerang works and more. Technology and engineering will be covered as we build catapults and trebuchets. Math is used as we practice our skills of trajectory against a castle wall. A little history is mixed in while exploring life during medieval times.
Extreme Chemistry Mystery Challenges Are you ready to get messy with some extreme chemistry experiments? Step into the science lab to solve mystery challenges. Investigate polymers, rates of reaction, density, chemical indicators and more to solve the mysteries. Our classes are hands-on Exploring STEM Careers Have you ever thought about being an astrophysicist, an engineer or even a veterinarian when you grow up?
Join us as we explore different careers in the fields of science, technology, engineering and math Through hands-on experiments and take-home projects, we will investigate some exciting professions so you can answer Arg Matey! Students work hard to apply their knowledge of construction to save the beach from erosion and build their very own city from the ground up. Camp Invention Register at inventnowkids. Not just for a day or a week, but for a lifetime.
Spend a week at Camp Invention for hands-on learning fun! Register at www. Scientist for a Day! Join us for a hands-on, fun-filled camp of exploring what it is to be a real scientist! Dig into what it takes to be a paleontologist.
See what reaction we get from being a chemist. Explore our animal side as a Zoologist, and build up what it means to be an Engineer. High Touch High Tech. Can you splash water using only sound energy? Build your very own catapult to take home. Have a blast launching water rockets, digging for dinosaurs, making F5 tornadoes, exploring with magnets and worms!
Activities with life, physical and earth science keep small hands busy. Destination Mars Rocketry Launch and watch your own rocket speed feet into the air! Then it is yours to take home! Students will make and take home multiple rockets of varying difficulty throughout this camp. Rockets and airplanes will be used to investigate basic aeronautical concepts including: propulsion, thrust, lift, drag and more. We will also hypothesize about travel in outer space.
Bring two empty, 2- liter soda bottles. Can the sun really cook food? Can you use soda to shine a penny? Join us as we dispel some of these mind-bending scientific questions in our Bust-A-Myth camp! Build fun, remote-controlled drones that run on solar power.
Students will have a blast building and using real life tools such as soldering irons, drills, etc. After all the building, they will challenge other students with their newly built solar drone. Students will take home their mini solar powered drone. Shocking Electrical Engineering Join us as we build electrical circuits with batteries, wires, motors, buzzers, and switches while learning about electricity and the flow of electrons. Students will learn skills they can use for life.
This class teaches all the practical ways the sun was used by tribal Native Americans and is still used today. Students will learn how to determine the time, how to cook, and make art all with the sun. They will build their own sun dial, sun oven, and sun etching to take home.
Bring a nut-free snack, nutfree lunch, and water bottle daily. Students use these projects and more to investigate engineering concepts. We keep it fun too with open ended, creative projects. STEM Builders. This class is an excellent introduction to robotics. Understand the mechanics of robotics.
Students will compete with each other with their wrestling robots. STEM Camp - Survivor Island Students find themselves stranded on an abandoned island filled with perilous obstacles — dark caves, wild animals, cold temperatures, little food, and separation from the comforts of home. They will work together with their tribe members to compete against other tribes in specific engineering-related projects aimed at trying to survive the harsh island conditions and escape to their freedom!
How fast can an object go without compromising safety? Students in this camp will work with their Pit Crew to design and build vehicles, such as dragsters, roller coasters and rockets. Fasten your seat belt, the race has begun! Do master challenges to demonstrate learning. This class is an excellent introduction to robotics programming and beyond. Kalyan Chanda. Artificial Intelligence Robot Learn about voice recognition devices and the technology behind it.
Learn about true artificial intelligence and how it is used and what it can do. Build your own voice recognizing device. Connect your robot to the Raspberry Pi board. Take your working AI device home. Bicycle Repair and Rebuilding Students will learn all aspects of repairing and rebuilding bikes including gears, brakes, wheel truing and re-greasing. Demonstrations and work will be done on bikes donated by local police departments and students will take bikes home. Basic physics explanations will include simple machines, gears, levers, and mechanical advantage.
Instructor will provide all tools and cleaning materials. John Dempsey. This may be the perfect camp for your student to combine the skill of hand sewing all with active play and teaching the audience about etiquette by putting on skits! Lori Winn. Babysitter Training Course Red Cross Certified Learn child development, how to handle emergencies such as choking, first aid, prevention of accidents, safety, feeding, diapering and more.
Students will receive a Red Cross certificate, handbook, CD and emergency guide. Students must be 11 years or older. Students must attend all 3 days. Bring a doll to class. Carol Solheid. Camp is packed with fun and interactive activities. Learn to be a confident speaker, captivate audiences, control speaking anxiety, vocal variety, and to use non-verbal communication techniques. Learn to give a unique, precise, and effective voice to thoughts. Camp will be packed with interactive activities.
Half of the day focuses on Creative Writing and the other half Speech and Debate. Spell check is great, but learning to spell is critical! This camp prepares students to attain proficiency in language. Students enhance their spelling with an introduction to linguistics, preparation strategies and growth mindset skills.
Camp ends with a spelling bee competition. They will gain tournament experience and skills that will help them become a dominant speller. Instructors are supported by high school and college students for more individualization. He has coached five state championship teams, and two national champions.
His teams have more trophies than Michael Phelps has Olympic Medals! His classes are dynamic; his students are dedicated and hard to beat. Staying all day? Does your child want to stay home alone after school or in the summer? Get your children trained with SafeKids and both of you will feel more confident about their safety at home and in the community.
Learn about staying home alone, answering the door or the telephone, basic first aid, choking, storm and fire emergency, dog emergencies, stranger danger, straight talk with honest answers and more. Students will be divided by age group, with the youngest age groups starting first. Ribbons will be awarded to the first six placers in each race. Participants need to bring running shoes and a water bottle. Register by June 1. All participants registered by June 1 will receive a track t-shirt on the first day of the meet.
Aaron Berndt. Youth Introduction to Rowing Is your child interested in the great sport of rowing? Camp is a way for middle school and high school students to be introduced to the sport of rowing and learn the basics of the sport — equipment training and techniques! While the intent is to stay afloat, all participants must be 11 years of age or older and able to swim.
Dress to get wet, wear tennis shoes and socks and bring a towel and a water bottle. Long Lake Rowing Club. New and returning students invited. Olympic Coach Ro Sobalvarro now provides curriculum, instructor training and tournament consultation. Coach Sobalvarro brings with him an immense knowledge of youth, national and international fencing.
We keep it fun, too. Your favorite instructors return with more knowledge, refined coaching skills and, of course, your favorite fencing games and arm bands. Safety is our first priority. We supply safety swords, protective masks, chest plates and jackets, in a high-octane, inclusive environment. Bike Skills Ride safe and smart this summer! Learn the skills to feel comfortable and confident on your bike at any level!
Level Three covers more advanced technical and fitness bike skills, off-road and trail riding. Level Three may also include an off-road bike ride at a local trail head. Parents must provide transportation. Each level will include fun games in a high energy, inclusive environment! All classes are taught by the head coach and captains of the Wayzata Mountain Bike Team. Kung Fu Wu Shu Join a fun, full participation class that focuses on helping students develop leadership, discipline, concentration and coordination skills for a healthy mind and body.
Improve your coordination, strength, flexibility and endurance. Learn the lifelong benefits of Kung Fu, the Chinese art of self-defense and fitness, from a Hong Kong champion. National Treasure. Stepping Stone A beautiful addition to your garden or home! Learn easy glass cutting techniques and freestyle assembly. Great class for beginners! Youth ages may register when accompanied by a registered adult.
Instructions will be given for larger stones. Pottery Wheel Throwing - Beginners Learn how to throw bowls, cups and plates as you master the basics of wheel throwing. Come prepared to have fun and get dirty! The instruction and demonstrations will focus on the fundamentals of the pottery wheel, glazing, and firing. Mosaic Bird Bath This bird bath is made with a terra-cotta drip tray. It is decorated with pieces of stained glass, and then grouted at the next class. It is beautiful when completed!
It can be placed on the ground, on a wrought iron stand or other fun options. We will discuss how a water pump might be added, if that interests you. Youth ages may register with a registered adult. Tuesday, Apr. Celebrate Spring with Mosaic Yard Art Decorate your yard and garden with beautiful and colorful mosaics.
You will make 3 garden stakes which come in a variety of shapes: birds, flowers, dragonflies and butterflies, or the welcome sign, a class favorite, is available in several sizes. Bring old towels to cut and a jar with a lid. Handmade gifts for any occasion. Take home delicious smelling and charming sugar scrubs, recipes and tips.
Take home soaps in 4 fragrance blends and DIY recipes. Jay is one of the best dance instructors in the metro area and is recruited by cruise lines around the world because of his dance knowledge. Singles welcome. Bring clean, indoor smooth-soled shoes to dance in. Tuesdays, Apr. Continue to perfect and review your East Coast Swing, Hustle, and Waltz dance steps as it is a key element in helping students relax, learn and experience success.
You thought about it! You wanted to! But where did the time go? Not to worry. In this 2-hour workshop, learn fun moves and simple tips to have you feeling comfortable and looking great on that special day! Feel free to bring your special song! Couples only, please. Wayzata Early Learning School is an all-inclusive early childhood school. We offer preschool and enrichment classes for children ages two to five, parent-child classes from birth to kindergarten entrance, part-time childcare for ages birth to five, and financial assistance to those who qualify.
Pilates Plus Improve balance, core strength, coordination and posture. Pilates exercises are integrated with small equipment, large and medium balls, 2 lb. Reformer exercises adapted with balls and tubing. Mindful exercise. Great for golfers!
Check out what you have been missing. Youth ages 16 - 17 may register when accompanied by a registered adult. Bring a mat, towel and water with you to class. Wednesdays, Jun. Yoga and Relaxation A practice linking yoga poses through inhales and exhales.
Breath-work, pose alignment and mindfulness all included! At the end of each practice, the instructor will lead the class through a 20 minute guided relaxation Yoga Nidra. Mats and props are available for those who do not have them.
Fitness Boot Camp Achieve your fitness goals! Designed for all levels, this intense but easy to follow class will give you results! Each workout is different to keep your body and mind guessing! Cardiovascular and strength work will be incorporated into each workout. Bring a mat and water bottle to class. Class will be held outdoors when possible. Zumba is a Latin-inspired, dance fitness class incorporating international music and Latin dance movements for a dynamic workout.
We will combine fast and slow rhythms that tone and sculpt the body and achieve a unique blended balance of cardio and muscle benefits. Dancers and non-dancers can master this class and have a great time! We are currently hiring flexible, part-time food service, before-and-after-school childcare and paraprofessional roles. Yang Style Short Form Tai Chi Chuan offers health benefits including relaxation, improved flexibility and better balance.
Yang style Tai Chi Chuan is the most popular style of Tai Chi and is known for its graceful movements and moderate frame. This class is for beginners looking for an easy to learn form that paves the way for taking more advanced classes in Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan. Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan is the most popular style of Tai Chi and is known for its graceful movements and moderate frame. Tai Chi Chuan offers health benefits including relaxation, improved flexibility and better balance.
This gentle exercise regimen stretches muscles and tendons, improving health and increasing flexibility. It is adaptable to any ability level and can be done in just a few minutes each day. We will also explore relaxation techniques meditation and breathing. Yogurt and Mozzarella Cheese for Beginners Easy, inexpensive, nutritious and gluten-free — learn to make mozzarella cheese and yogurt at home.
Make and taste samples. Bring two 1-cup containers with secure lids to take home mozzarella cheese and yogurt starter. Chinese Egg Rolls for Beginners Join in a hands-on experience to learn, prepare, and taste Chinese traditional-style egg rolls. Make room in your freezer, as everyone will have plenty of egg rolls to bring home! We will cover the types of wrappers used, the plethora of filling ideas, techniques on rolling, ways to cook, and how to serve.
Bring containers to take home samples. Become the master of full-flavored dough for making pizzas, flatbreads and focaccia with a no-knead dough that you mix and can store up to a week in the refrigerator. Get hints for grilled pizzas, topping ideas and whole wheat options. Bring a rolling pin, 4-quart mixing bowl with cover, measuring cups and spoons, and large wooden spoon. Chinese Wontons and Potstickers for Beginners Easy, fun and delicious -- learn to make Chinese wontons and dumplings.
Learn wrapping techniques and make tasty fillings with right texture and flavor , fast and easy. Boil, pan-fry, or steam the finished products. Bring a container to take home samples. Learn the difference between preserves, and taste several different kinds. Chinese Steam Bun Baozi Be the first to know how to make homemade steam buns. Come join us and learn how to make authentic Chinese steam buns that are filled with juicy ground pork and encased in spongy, slightly chewy dough - a fun and remarkable cooking experience.
How about a refreshing fruit salad with orange sauce or a Raspberry-Spinach Salad with Glazed Pecans, which is so pretty? Indian Cooking A typical Indian meal combines salty, sweet, creamy, spicy, hot and pungent flavors. The basic menu usually comprises a starch, a meat or fish main dish, vegetables, and chutney. Indian flatbread or basmati rice complements the other dishes to highlight a balanced spectrum of flavors.
This culinary journey will give you confidence to prepare these amazing dishes on your own. Monday, Mar. Are you anxious about starting ninth grade and navigating the high school? Would starting the first day of school already having established relationships make for an easier transition? Step Up to Wayzata High School offers in-coming freshman an opportunity to learn introductory skills and concepts in one or more of their core classes: Civics, English, Algebra, and Science.
In addition to learning about the curriculum, students will learn about mindsets that will help them throughout their entire high school experience. Step Up to WHS also introduces students to the culture of the high school by building a community of relationships with other students and teachers. These classes are intended for students who have not been invited to Summer Learning Academy. We are committed to helping students become safe and responsible drivers with full knowledge of driving rules and strong driving skills by providing an exceptional classroom and behind the wheel learning experience.
Register for each separately. Classroom instruction consists of 30 hours of training taught by a teacher with both a teaching license and a driver education certification. Bring your iPad or laptop to class. Fee includes lunch. NOT ME! Safety and Assault Prevention Open to women of all ages 16 and up.
Moms strongly encouraged to attend with their daughters! Learn about types of assaults, staying safe in public, campus safety and more. No martial arts or fighting, just simple techniques to escape that anyone can do. Read complete description online. Wayzata Badminton Team Interested in the most fast-paced sport in the world? Join the Wayzata Badminton Team! Sponsored by Wayzata Community Education, the co-ed competitive badminton team provides opportunities for students to engage in badminton through learning, playing and competing.
Gain the skills necessary to play at a competitive level through skills training, free play and inter-school tournaments. Participation in competitions is expected of all members, but not required. Competitions are separate, and participants will register on their own.
Coaches will provide information about available competitions once the season begins. Wed Jun. Monday, Apr. Safety Trainers. Learn how to wire single pole, 3-way switches, outlets, a light fixture, and test the circuit. We will discuss the home electrical system and review procedures to rewire a lamp. Bring a wire stripper, long-nose pliers, and screwdrivers to class, if you have them.
Basic Home Repair - Plumbing Learn to repair minor plumbing problems or replace fixtures yourself. You will take apart different types of faucets, replace a pop-up drain assembly, and discuss the internal working parts of a toilet. You will be able to cut and glue plastic pipe and solder copper pipe and fittings. Growing Gracefully With Your Garden Gardening can be harder as we age or when we have physical limitations.
Ideas that anyone can incorporate into their gardening at any time to make their gardening adventure easier and more accessible will be shared. Container Garden Design Do you desire lush, healthy, long-lasting and colorful container gardens that add pizzazz to your property? Whether you are a novice or experienced gardener, it is hard to know where to begin. Learn how to get started on finding fast-growing, vigorous, nurseryquality plants with season-long colors.
View images of striking combinations and receive a detailed handout. Join military historian Dan Hartman for tea, coffee and history. This series will focus on history through informative lectures and discussions in an informal setting.
Come to all five discussions or choose the topics that interest you. We will examine in detail the life of James Fenimore Cooper as he wrote the stories, plus his life in Paris. This event gave worldwide attention to Chicago which brought many people into the city, both good and bad. Jack the Ripper Jack the Ripper is the best known name given to an unidentified serial killer generally believed to have been active in the largely impoverished areas in and around the Whitechapel district of London in Teach a Class Do you have a skill, hobby or passion that you would like to share?
Consider teaching an enrichment class! Visit the Community Education website at wayzata. Do you know the important tasks that must be taken care of if someone dies? There are several tax considerations to be aware of as you prepare for retirement. Preparations you make now can substantially impact your retirement experience. We will introduce retirement considerations such as tax diversification, taxation of capital gains and Social Security, health care insurance subsidies, and the financial impact of the first death in retirement.
Being equipped with financial knowledge is a powerful tool to get through divorce with confidence. This class is for those contemplating, in the midst of, or for those already divorced. Learn financial strategies to help you feel empowered during a very stressful time. Use your computer to write, change, and update your own Will. Computer not needed for class. Using the professionally designed Self-Help Will, you will easily write and revise a legal Will for your needs. Avoiding Probate and Preserving Assets What is a living trust and how can it be used to avoid probate while still retaining control of assets?
Discuss methods of avoiding probate and ways to plan for preservation of assets in case of extraordinary medical costs and long-term care. Information on different types of wills, and approaches to estate planning will be explored. Keeping the Doors Open: Entrepreneurship Most new businesses fail in the first ten years.
This class will improve the odds of survival for existing or would be entrepreneurs and small business owners. Get expert advice on business financing, growth and development, hiring professional advisors, and fending off threats to business survival. Savvy Social Security Planning for Women Social Security is one of the few income sources that keeps up with inflation and lasts for life. But many women fail to maximize their benefits. Learn the little-known rules that can help you get more out of the system.
This workshop is for women, and for men who have women in their lives wives, sisters, mothers. It features essential information all women need to have if they are concerned about financial security in retirement. Learn some little-known rules that can help married couples get more out of the Social Security system. What are the responsibilities, liabilities and differences among executor, trustee, power of attorney and guardian?
Lawyer Richard Bunin, who has experience in the areas of estate planning, elder law and real estate, answers your questions. This is the class to take if you have been appointed, or are deciding whom to appoint. Estate Planning Solutions for Blended Families Without proper planning, assets that you brought to your 2nd marriage could end up ultimately with the children of your new spouse - shortchanging your children - if that spouse survives you.
Learn ways to protect assets for your children from your 1st marriage. A Revocable Living Trust may not be for everyone, but for many people, taking the time to secure a Trust now can save time, money, and frustration for their loved ones in the future.
Learn what a Revocable Living Trust is, how it can help you avoid probate and secure your estate, and how to assess if a Revocable Trust makes sense for you. Understanding what happens after a loved one dies will help you make better plans to ease the burden and give you peace of mind.
Questions about death certificates, notifications, handling possessions, Probate and Wills will be discussed. Cremation, burial, and information that will be asked following a death will also be covered. Division of an estate can lead to bitter battles between siblings and impact relationships forever.
Learn how to keep the cabin, farm or business in the family without creating a family conflict. We will discuss ways to help ensure your children receive equal inheritance, strategies to help with the impact of taxes, and review your assets for the next generation.
Learn when a Will is sufficient, and when you might opt for a Trust. Learning ways to avoid probate will be explored. Health Care Directives and Powers of Attorney will also be discussed. All ages. This night with the stars, constellations, planets, star clusters, nebulae, and more, starts off with an indoor orientation followed by quality time outside under the stars.
Youth under age 18 must be accompanied by a registered adult. Introduction to Storytelling We all have a story to tell. Maybe you want to improve your story writing or get comfortable with public speaking? Join us to gain confidence and ability as you work on your story and voice. Youth age may register with a registered adult.
Historic Cemeteries of the Twin Cities Spend a fun and most interesting day with photographer and storyteller, Doug Ohman as he takes us around the Twin Cities to experience historic cemeteries. The tour will include unique stops that shed new light on Minnesota history, including the oldest cemetery in Minneapolis. The day begins with an overview of historic cemeteries and what to look for. Lunch will be included. Resources, senior living options, and how to proceed once diagnosis is confirmed will be discussed.
Thursday, May. Monday, May. Learn about a system to, once and for all, get every printed photo, digital photo and your memorabilia organized. Learn about scanning for slides, movies, prints, as well as backing, cloud storage and scanners. We will also demonstrate easy ways to repair old photos. In this workshop, you will discover the masterful use of questions, sharing secrets, and using power words and phrases that have a powerful impact on those you are attempting to persuade. Chords are Key for Piano In just a few hours, you can learn enough secrets of the trade to give you years of musical enjoyment.
Online book and videos included. In this class, you will learn some great magic to amaze friends and family. All ages are welcome - dads, moms, grandparents, aunts, and uncles. All materials are included. Saturdays, Apr. Join other adults exploring this amazing sport and learn the beginning techniques of rowing.
Lessons may include time in a team boat as well as a single boat - depending on your individual progress. See the online description for more details. Adult Level 2 Rowing If you have completed the Level 1 Learn-to-Row class and want to continue to develop your skills, this is the class for you! In Level 2, you will build on technique and increase your confidence in your rowing stroke. You may be working in team or individual boats.
See online description for more details. RVing for Beginners Did you know that approximately 8. Have you ever wanted to experience the RVing lifestyle, but felt overwhelmed by the idea or uncertainty of where to begin and what option to try first: pop-up, travel trailer, 5th wheeler or motorhome? In this class, we will go over some of the basic knowledge needed to choose the right RV to fit your specific desires. Senior Living Options and Advising Seniors and their loved ones will be fully educated on the world of senior care and living options available today.
The best time to plan for the future is before a crisis. Learn about the financial pieces involved, plus other valuable resources and helpful tips for families. Learn about board member roles, governing documents, insurance claim liability, and ways to get homeowners involved in your community. The course is two sessions of classroom instruction - no driving or test is required.
You will receive a certificate of completion to provide to your insurance company. Attendance at both sessions is required to receive your certificate. The instructor is certified through the MN Safety Council. Wednesday, Apr. A Linux operating system distribution such as those based on Ubuntu can be an effective, low-cost alternative for you to consider. This presentation will show you how to acquire, install and use the Ubuntu Mate operating system.
They are light-weight, easy to use, very secure and cost less than most laptops. They can be the most appropriate computer for seniors. In this demonstration, you will learn about configuration and use of Chromebooks for email, calendars photos, etc. You may bring your own Chromebook if you have one, but it is not required.
Youth ages may registered with a registered adult. Bring Your Own Laptop Adobe Photoshop Elements Learn to use this popular photo editing program to crop and rotate photos, add text to photos, set the best resolution, resize the photo, correct the colors, correct flaws and cover up eyesores. Create a collage of photos, a panoramic image, and organize your photos.
Bring your own laptop, power cords and Photoshop installed on your laptop. Tuesday, Mar. Expand your knowledge of Excel. Build, create and save new presentations, format slides, use autoshapes, work with graphics, use tables and charts, use templates, work with the slide master, and add transitions and timings.
Posture and Osteoporosis Workshop: Building Better Bones Have you ever caught sight of your reflection in a window or mirror to see that your head leads the way, or noticed that your shoulders and upper back are too rounded forward? Learn simple exercises and techniques to improve posture and stand straighter.
Try to survive on one block as long as you can Download kb. Download 1 mb. Download 4 mb. Download 2 mb. Survival Maps for Minecraft 1. Skyblock Randomizer. Try to survive o Download kb. Falling Falling. A survival map or a miracle falls from the sky Easy SkyBlock. This is an easy survival map where the goal is to have fun!
Square Planet Surviv. Yes I would. I haven't really got a computer that can play MTW2 yet but that day shall come and I would love to have this option. Post a comment. Feed for this blog. At first it looks quite sensible, with all parts of the map covered by regions:. Newer Post Older Post Home. Subscribe to: Post Comments Atom. About Me Tomasz Wegrzanowski is a software developer in London. Email me with any questions.
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